HMWH Unit 6 Part 1

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  1. Treaty of Versailles-outcome
    • Left nations unhappy
    • League of Nations was not able to keep peace
    • US didn't join LoN since Americans didn't want to be involved w/ European affairs
    • Germany owed 132 DM in reparations
    • France was outraged Germany couldn't pay all reparations and sent troops
  2. Inflation
    • The rise in prices
    • German workers went on strike and govn had to print more money, eventually making it worthless
    • Workers would use wheelbarrows to take home weekly pay and it was so worthless, bills could be used for kindling
  3. Dawes Plan
    • Created by an American banker who first reduced the reparations
    • Granted $200 million load for Germany's recovery
    • European prosperity only lasted a few years (1924 to 1929)
  4. Kellogg-Briand pact
    • The Treaty of Locarno, signed by Gustav Stresemann and Aristide Briand, was the beginning of a new era of peace in Europe
    • Germany joined LoN in 1926
    • 63 nations signed the pact
    • "renounce war as an instrument of national policy"
    • Promises to go to war were worthless w/o any way to enforce
    • States were unwilling to reduce military since they didn't trust any other power except their own
  5. Great Depression
    • A series of downturns in economies from priced of farm products fell rapidly from overproduction
    • International financial crisis involved the stock market
  6. US Stock
    • US stock market was booming during the 1920's (think Great Gatsby)
    • By 1928, American investors had to borrow money from Germany to support themselves
    • By 1929, American stock market crashed and prices of stocks plunged
  7. Market Crash
    • Weakened the European banks eventually started failing one by one
    • 1932 was the worst year during the Great Depression
    • 25% of the US population was unemployed (40% were unemployed in Germany)
    • Govn tried to decrease wages and raise tariffs to exclude foreign goods from home markets
    • Caused the govn to not interfere w/ economy (laissez-faire tradition)
    • Communism and Marxism became more popular
    • It led people to follow political leaders who offered simple solutions in return for power
  8. Weimar Republic
    • Plagued w/ problems
    • No outstanding political leaders: Paul von Hindenburg didn't fully endorse the republic he was elected to serve
    • Middle class was pushed toward political parties that were hostile to the republic
    • Depression created fear and the rise of extremist parties
  9. Collective Bargaining
    • The right of the unions to negotiate w/ employers over wages and hours
    • French New Deal had given workers the right to collective bargaining
    • Gave industrial workers 40-hour workweek, paid vacation for two weeks every year, and minimum wage
    • By 1938, the French had little confidence in their political system
  10. John Maynard Keynes
    • Largely ignored by political leaders
    • Condemned the old theory that depressions should be left to resolve themselves w/o govn interference (lassaiz-faire)
    • Argued unemployment didn't come from overproduction, but from lack of demand
    • Demand could be increased by putting people to work on buildings and highways
  11. New Deal
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt created a policy of active govn intervention in the economy
    • Increased program of public works and a new social legislation that began the US welfare system
    • Didn't solve unemployment
  12. Totalitarian State
    • A govn that controls the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of citizens
    • Pushed power of the central state far beyond what it had been in the past
    • Created propaganda techniques and high-speed modern communication to conquer the minds and hearts of citizens
    • Lead by a single leader and party and rejected the ideal of limited govn power and individual freedoms
    • Freedoms determined by leader
  13. Benito Mussolini
    • Established the first European Fascist movement in Italy
    • Began as a socialist and created the Fascio di Combattimento (League of Combat)
    • Emphasized the need for a central govn lead by a dictator
    • People controlled by govn
    • Any opposition suppressed
  14. Fascism
    • Created by Benito Mussolini
    • Called the Blackshirts and attacked socialist offices and newspapers, and used violence to break up strikes
    • Middle class who feared the working class strikes became fascist
    • When Mussolini demanded more land for Italy, more people became fascist
    • "Either we are allowed to govern or we will seize power"
    • Mussolini became prime minister of Rome and later became dictator
    • Police were given unrestricted authority to arrest anyone for non-political or political crimes
    • Fascists outlawed all other political parties in Italy
    • Established secret police called Organization for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism (OVRA) and controlled forms of mass media
    • "Mussolini is always right" (think Boxer)
  15. New Economic Policy (NEP)
    • Lenin abandoned war communism for the NEP
    • It was a modified version of the capitalist system
    • Peasants were allowed to sell their produce openly
    • Industry, banking, and mines remained in control of the govn
  16. USSR
    • Lenin and communists created the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик)
    • Soviet Union had a revived market
    • Agriculture increase by 75%
  17. Politburo
    • Committee split into two groups:
    •      One led by Leon Trotsky, wanted to end NEP, and wanted Russia to rapidly industrialize, wanted to spread communism abroad and believed Russia would not survive its revolution unless other nations were communist
    •      The other focused on making a socialist state, continued NEP, didn't believe in rapid industrialization since it would ruin the pea
    • sants
  18. Joseph Stalin
    • Stalin was the general secretary of Trotsky's party, which was the most important position in the party
    • Stalin used the power to gain control over the communists
    • By 1929, he was able to create a dictatorship
    • Those that were loyal to him survived
    • Trotsky was expelled from the party, exiled to Mexico, and later murdered (most likely by Stalin)
  19. Five-Year Plan
    • Stalinist era created a beginning of an economic social, and political revolution, ended NEP, and created the Five-Year plans
    • Purpose was to transform Russia overnight from agriculture to industry
    • First Five-Year Plan emphasized the maximum production of armaments and capital goods
    • Quadrupled production of heavy machinery, double oil production, and steel increased as well
    • Social and political costs were enormous and there was little care of the workers
    • Wages declined by 43% and strict laws limited where workers could move
    • Propaganda stressed the need for sacrifice to create the new socialist state
  20. Collectivization
    • A system where private farms were eliminated and the govn owned lands while peasants worked them
    • mane peasants resisted it, which led to famine and many sent to labor camps
    • Stalin's craze for power led to the Great Purge, the removal of all opponents
    • 8 million Russians arrested and millions sent to labor camps and many executed
  21. Francisco Franco
    • A general who led Spanish military forced to revolt against the democratic govn in 1936 and a civil war began
    • Foreign intervention made revolution difficult, but the fascists helped those that were fighting
    • Hitler took advantage of the Spanish Civil War to test new weapons
    • Franco captured Madrid in 1939 and became dictator who favored the more wealthy (large landowners, business people, and Catholic clergy)
    • Dictatorship was authoritarian rather than totalitarian
Card Set:
HMWH Unit 6 Part 1
2016-02-19 05:21:31
history unit6 GreatDepression

Unit 6 Part 1 History Notes: Treaty of Versailles-outcome, Inflation, Dawes Plan, Kellogg-Briand pact, Great Depression, US Stock, Market Crash, Weimar Republic, Collective Bargaining, John Maynard Keynes, New Deal, Totalitarian State, Beinito Mussolini, Fascism, New Economic Policy, USSR, Politburo, Joseph Stalin, Five-Year Plan, Collectivization, Francisco Franco
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