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- small monkey first appearing 55MM
- evidence of opposable thumbs, finger nails, and flat face
- 7mm years ago
- first evidence of bipedal due to forward position of foramen magnum
- bone fragments 5.8 MM to 6.1 MM years
- evidence of bipedalism due to femur
What were the two bidpedal hominid species
- Sahelanthropus Tchandensis - forward facing foramen magnum
- Orrorin Tugenensis - femur
Arditpithecus ramidus "Ardi"
- 44 MM BP
- lived in both the tree and ground
expanded brain size 25%. Hands were well developed for tool making, thus was the first of the hominids for hunting and gathering
What type of hominid species was Lucy?
- 1.95 - 1.78 MM
- the oldest predecessor before modern day humans and is referred to as the most "human like" species
the earliest human ancestor that is capable of speech, with aa brain size that is 30 - 40% larger than A. Africanus
- highly sophisticated motor skills, including fire usage 1MM yr. ago
- first used of the hand ax
What makes Neanderthals a separate species from Homo sapien (AKA modern day humans)
- They did not have a dominant chin
- they had thicker and larger craniums with wider brow ridges
Two types of dating methods
- absolute -
- dendrochronology, carbon - 14, archaemagnetism
- relative dating -
- relies on dating by referring to other dated objects ex) fossils
What is Brian's Arthur's reason for subsystems
- to overcome limitation, and simplify a growing complex world.
- ex) machines, bureaucracies