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What are the branches of Anthropology?
What is cultural anthropology?
study of patterns of belief and behavior within cultures
What are ethnographies?
descriptive studies of human societies - traditionally non-Western cultures
What is linguistic anthropology?
study of human speech and language
What is archaeology?
study of earlier cultures through artifacts
What are artifacts?
objects or materials made or modified for use by hominins, usually tools made of stone or bone
What is physical anthropology?
study of humans, both holistic (study of everything about society), and comparative (modern and historic)
What is biological anthropology?
scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral characteristics of human beings and our closest relatives, the non-human primates, and their ancestors
What (and when) did Charles Darwin write/publish?
Origin of the Species, 1850
What is primate paleontology?
study of fossil primates, especially those that lived prior to the appearance of hominins
What is paleoanthropology?
inter-disciplinary approach to study of earlier hominins
What is applied anthropology?
practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques; outside the academic setting
What is ossteology
study of skeletal material
What is DNA?
double-stranded molecule that contains genetic code; main component of chromosomes
What are nutritional anthropologists?
they study the relationships between dietary components, cultural practices, physiology, aspects of health and disease
What are molecular anthropologists?
those that investigate evolutionary relationships between humans and non-human primates
What is bioarchaeology?
study of skeletons (from archaeological sites)
What is paleopathology
a branch of osteology that studies evidence of disease or injury
What is forensic anthropology?
applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters; work with coroners and others to identify and analyze human remains
What is primatology?
study of biology and behavior of non-human primates
What are some non-human primates?
lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes
What is the scientific method?
- a system of inquiry that develops a hypothesis based upon observation
- experimentation to collect data
- testing of the data to support or reject hypothesis
- further testing with new technology or data
viewing entities as they relate to something else; cultures have merit within their own historical and environmental contexts
What are kinship networks?
- biological (blood, family lines)
- marriage ties
- fictive kin = adoptive
What is culture?
the ways of doing and acting that are passed down through the generations, not by genetics, but via LEARNED BEHAVIOR
We understand the evolutionary story from...?
a scientific perspective
What is the 4 Field Approach?
What are the branches of Physical Anthropology?
- Molecular genetics
- Forensic Anthropology
Scientific Method is a process of understanding things through _______________, _________________, and _______________.
What does empirical mean?
The world is __________________ and _________________.
- perceptions are based upon testing theories
- tests with controlled observations
What is a theory?
- explanation framework
- set of assumptions derived from observation
- hypothesis that has been tested and accepted as more accurate than competing explanations
What is deductive reasoning?
hypothesis first, then tested (with new observations)
What is inductive reasoning?
gather information first, then try to make sense of it
What is a hypothesis?
tentative assumptions that accounts for relationships between empirical observations
What is the scientific model?
- a representation of reality devised for the purpose of testing a hypothesis
- a conceptual framework for explaining things
What is the cornerstone theory for ANTH101?
Why does one need to understand variety and diversity within the human experience?
Because it helps avoid ethnocentrism.
ethnocentric = judging other societies or groups based upon one's own culture/society/experience.
What is Molecular Genetics?
- study of the human genotype
- DNA comparison (sequences, differences/similarities, comparitive data for patterns, political reasons)