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What is energy?
the capacity to perform work.
when work increases, the more the amount of energy increases to make change
6 different types of energy?
mechanical, light, and chemical, heat, nuclear, electrical
why is energy essential for exercise?
its essential for movement
1st Law of Thermodynamics
- energy is neither created or destroyed, its transferred
- ex. water wheel, exercise
2st Law of Thermodynamics*
- all energy transfers are moving towards greater levels of disorder. it always wants to move towards degradation (like even an unused batter)
- ex. chemical rxns
How do the 1st and 2nd laws apply to chemical rxns in the body?
- 1st-the body doesn't product/consume energy, it transfers it from one state to the other
- 2nd-potential energy has the tendency to be reduced when it transfers to kinetic energy (entropy)
potential vs kinetic energy
(think of examples)
what is biosynthesis?
potential- the amount of energy something holds before it is used. ex. a stick of dynamite just sitting
kinetic- the release, when energy is put into motion. ex. that dynamite stick exploding
when potential energy moves from one substance to another, to add to the other substances potential energy
Concept of Gibbs Free energy (ΔG)
what does free energy determine?
the energy required to make a system or reaction
it determines the potential energy
ex. ATP -> ADP+Pi+Energy (can also go backward) energy release for muscle contraction
this rxn releases energy, leaving less in the product than in the reactant
when coupled, it is transferring its released energy to the endergonic rxn
what does ΔG, -ΔG, +ΔG mean?
- -the amount of change
- -the product has less free energy
- -the product has more free energy
- stores/absorbs free energy
- this rxn proceeds because its product contains more energy than the reactant
When exergonic and endergonic rxns link together to allow rxns to move backwards and forwards
its purpose is "conservation energy principle", allows chemical energy in macronutrients we eat to be transferred into other energy forms instead of just dissipating
Explain the donor-receiver role of ATP pool
Energy extracted from the metabolism (food) is transferred and trapped within ATP. Then ATP transfers energy from itself to whatever metabolic process needs it (ex, muscle contraction)
What causes muscle fatigue?
Think of donor-receiver pool
Energy from the metabolism goes into ATP slower than ATP can go into the biological system (muscle contraction)
How do we balance the ATP pool? Keep from muscle fatigue?
We balance the input vs output of the metabolism and muscle contractions
-give the metabolism more time to transfer energy to ATP
What is metabolism made of? how does it work to transfer energy to ATP? What Type of rxns?
- Anabolism is an endergonic rxn, so its taking the macronutrients apart and handing the energy off to ATP.
- ATP hands off the energy to the biological system via exergonic rxns
What are the three energy systems in the body?
simply describe each. use of enzymes?
- Phosphagen- less enzymes. kicks in fastest, but lasts shorter time
- Glycolitic- moderate enzymes. lasts a little longer and fast
- oxidative- most amount of enzymes to cross, but lasts longest at peak production
YOU USE ALL 3 AT START OF EXERCISE
What system generates ATP the fastest?
What determines ATP synthesis rates? (3 factors)
How does CHO and FAT help?
- -the number of enzymes in its path
- -enzyme activity (changeable)
- -ability to use O2 (changeable)
- CHO- produces fast ATP (anaerobic)
- FAT- produces slow ATP
what is another name for it?
how many enzymes are used?
How fast is its peak production?
- ATP-CP system
- 1 enzyme
- ~ 3 to 8 seconds, then it needs help from other systems to keep biological functions going
What does it primarily use to resynthesize ATP?
What are the 3 components, how do they work?
-uses creatine phosphate
- 1) ADP + Pi + energy --> ATP (reversible)
- - produces high energy/anaerobic source of phosphate bond energy
- 2) CP + ADP --> ATP + Cr + Energy (reversible, this energy is used to help ADP and Pi create even more ATP)
- This is important because cells can carry more PCr than ATP. So you can produce ATP more rapidly.
- 3) ADP+ADP --> ATP+AMP
- ADP and AMP byproducts trigger oxidative and glycolitic systems
What is the primary role of energy metabolism in the body?
To phosphorylate ADP in order to make ATP to be used for biological systems
How does the phosphagen system affect the glycolytic and oxidative systems?
The adenylate kinase (2 ADP->ATP+AMP) and creatine kinase (CP+ADP->ATP+Cr) produce ADP, AMP and Pi as their byproducts.
- ADP triggers the uptake of oxygen in the mitochondria
- AMP triggers the breakdown of glycogen
What is glycolysis?
What is another name for glycolysis?
Overall, is it an aerobic or anaerobic process?
- Emden-Meyerhof pathway
- It is when CHO catabolizes and breaks down to either lactate or pyruvate. Initially, glucose breaks itself down into two pyruvates, which either
- 1) create a product of lactate (which is rapid, limited, and anaerobic)
- 2) creates a product of pyruvate, which will continue to be catabolized by CHO to produce ATP (slow, more atp, and aerobic)
Overall, the process of glucose turning into lactate or pyruvate is an anaerobic process
What are the 3 phases of glycolysis?
1) ATP breaks down so that it can donate a Pi. It phosphorylates the glucose into glucose 6-phosphate and produces ADP.
2) DHAP breaks down to G-3P. G-3P turns into pyruvate when it interacts with ADP.
3) When the ADP pick up P from the G-3P, it produces ATP!
What does the glycolitic system produce? How much?
What is the total percentage of energy that we derive from glycolysis? (fast, because primarily glycolysis is anaerobic)
1 glucose produces 2 ATP, also 2 NADH
5% of total glycolytic energy. small energy production
What determines how fast or slow glycolysis produces ATP? What is it? How?
PFK, is an allosteric enzyme that regulates the production by either speeding it up or inhibiting it via interactions with phosphagen.
When ATP/H ions are high in the cell, PFK says "okay thats enough"
When AMP/ADH are high in the cell, PFK sats "lets act to make more ATP"
How else does glycolysis contribute to energy production?
is lactate bad?
chemically, what is lactate?
glycolysis forms lactate. Lactate forms when NADH temporarily joins with pyruvate. It oxidizes NADH to drop off its hydrogens, so that NAD can then go back into the system to react with glycogen again to keep glycolysis going.
lactate is very good!
1 pyruvate with 2 hydrogen
Does lactic acid exist in the human body? Why or why not?
- There is not enough H+ to cause lactate to exist as an acid. Lactate production actually absorbs H+, so it causes an increase in the PH, reducing acidosis.
What is PK? What is it for lactate that makes us believe it can't be a lactic acid?
pK is how acidic a substance is. lactate can't be an acid because its pK is only 3.9, its not acidic enough
How does lactate threshold relate to endurance performance?
the more you are able to turnover lactate to be ready for oxidation, the longer you will be able to perform
What is the glycerol-phosphate shuttle? What is significant about it?