CHAPTER 4

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  1. Surface structures of epithelia
    • Smooth - reduce friction
    • Microvilli - increase surface area for absorption or secretion.
    • Cilia - move materials across the surface
    • Stereocilia - elongated [longer] microvilli for sensation and absorption.
    • Folds: in transitional epithelium where organ must be able to change shape. Urinary system.
  2. Types of Epithelium Tissues
    • Simple squamous epithelium
    • Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • Simple columnar epithelium
    • Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • Stratified columnar epithelium
  3. Specialized epithelium
    • Pseudostratified columnar w/goblet cells & cilia
    • Transitional epithelium
  4. Simple squamous epithelium
    • Structure: single layer of flat cell.
    • Location: kidney's renal corpuscle bowman's capsule.
    • Function: diffusioin & filtration
  5. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • Structure: single layer of cube-shaped cells. Some have microvilli or cilia.  
    • Location: kidney tubules & surface of ovaries.
    • Function: secretion & absorption in the kidney.
  6. Simple columnar epithelium
    • Structure: single layer and tall narrow cells. Some have cilia or microvilli. 
    • Location: glands & lining of intestine.
    • Function: movement & absorption
  7. Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Structure: multiple layers of cells that are cuboidal.
    • Locations:
    • 1. moist (non-keratinized) - mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus, anus, vagina, inferior urethra, and cornea. 
    • 2. Keratinized - skin. 
    • Functions: protection against abrasion, chemicals, water loos, and infection.
  8. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • Structure: multiple layers of somewhat cubed-shaped cells. 
    • Locations: sweat glands, salivary gland ducts. 
    • Functions: secretion
  9. Stratified columnar epithelium
    Function: protection
  10. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • Structure: w/goblet cells & cilia
    • Location: respiratory system
    • Function: synthesize and secrete mucus.
  11. Transitional epithelium
    • Structure: change shape
    • Location: urinary bladder 
    • Functions: stretch
  12. Biopsy
    removal of tissues for diagnostic purposes.
  13. Autopsy
    examination of organs of a dead body to determine cause of death.
  14. Type of Tissues
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
  15. Mesoderm [Germ layers]
    • Middle layer
    • Forms tissues as such muscle, bone, blood vessels.
  16. Classification of Epithelium
    • Simple: one layer. single layer.
    • Stratified: more than one layer. top layer is that matters. more layer means more protection.
    • Squamous: flat, scale-like. 
    • Cuboidal: about equal in height and width. 
    • Columnar: taller than wide.
  17. Smooth
    reduce friction
  18. Microvilli
    increase surface area for absorption or secretion
  19. Cilia
    move materials across the surface
  20. Stereocilia
    elongated microvili for sensation and absorption
  21. Folds
    in transitional epithelium where organ must be able to change shape. Urinary system.
  22. Functional Characteristics of Epithelium
    • Simple: allows diffusion of gases, filtration of blood, secretion, absorption.
    • Stratified: protection, particularly against abrasion.
    • Squamous: allows diffusion or acts as filter.
    • Cuboidal and columnar: secretioin or absorption. May include goblet cells that produce and secrete mucus. 
  23. Simple [Epithelium]
    • One [single] layer of cells. Each extends from basement membrane to the free surface. 
    • Allows diffusion of gases, filtration of blood, secretion, absorption.
  24. Stratified [Epithelium]
    • More than one layer. It's the top layer that matters. More layers means more protection.
    • Protection, particularly against abrasion.
  25. Squamous [Epithelial]
    • Flat, scale-like. Single layer.
    • Allows diffusion or acts as filter.
  26. Cuboidal and Columnar
    • Cuboidal is about equal in height and width. Columnar is taller than wide. 
    • Secretion or absorption. May include goblet cells  that produce and secrete mucus.
  27. Cells of connective tissue
    • Found on lateral and basal surfaces of cells.
    • Functions: Form permeability later. Blind cells together. Provide mechanism for intercellular (between) communication.
    • Types: Desmosomes, tight junctions, & gap junctions.
  28. Desmosomes
    Holds neighboring cells together. No cell to cell communication.
  29. Hemidesmosomes
    Half of a desmosome; attach epithelial cells to basement membrane. 
  30. Tight Junctions
    Holds neighboring cells together. No cell to cell communication.
  31. Gap Junctions
    Allows cell to cell communication. Protein channels aid intercellular communication between [found] in the cardiac and smooth muscle. Protein found is connexins.
  32. Exocrine Gland
    Secrete a hollow organ surface of the skin onward into a duct.
  33. Endorcrine Gland
    Secrete into bloodstream. No open contact with exterior.
  34. Merocrine [Gland]
    Only the product is being released from the gland.
  35. Aprocrine [Gland]
    Part of the cell is also being released along with the product.
  36. Holocrine [Gland]
    The entire cell is being released with the product.
  37. Cells of connective tissue [suffix]
    • Blast: create [produce] the matrix.
    • Cytes: maintain the matrix.
    • Clasts: break [destructive] the matrix down.
    • Adiposecyte: Fat cells. 
    • Mast cell: produce histamine and heparin.
  38. Loose (Areolar) CT
    Can be found anywhere.
  39. Adipose CT
    Under the skin. Mammary glands. Breast. Yellow (white). Brown.
  40. Reticular CT
    Found in the spleen and nymph nodes.
  41. Dense regular CT
    • Tendons: muscle to bone.
    • Ligaments: bone to bone.
  42. Dense Irregular CT
    Found in a layer of skin known as dermis.
  43. Dense Regular Elastic CT
    Found in the vocal cords.
  44. Dense Irregular Elastic CT
    Found in the Aorta.
  45. Ty
  46. Types of cartilage
    • Hyaline cartilage: most common type. Once a Hylaine Cartilage in a the fetus stage. 
    • Fibrocartilage: Most abundant collagen fibers. 
    • Elastic cartilage: located in the external ear.

    All contain chondrocyte in a lacunae.
  47. Hyaline cartilage
    Most common type. Once a Hyaline Cartilage in a fetus stage. Articulation - the end of the long bones.
  48. Firbrocartilage
    Most abundant collagen fibers. Between the body of each vertebrae.
  49. Elastic cartilage
    Lost in the external ear.
  50. Adhesive Molecules
    • Chondronectin: found in cartilages.
    • Osteonectin: in bone. 
    • Fibronectin: in fibrous connective tissue.
  51. Protein fibers of the matrix
    • Collagen: Most common protein in body; strong, flexible, inelastic (made by fibroblasts). 
    • Reticular: Fill spaces between tissues and organs. Fine collagenous, form branching networks. 
    • Elastic: returns to its original shape after distension or compression.
  52. Bone
    • Spongy bone (trabecular) 
    • Compact bone
  53. Erythrocyte
    Red cells. Produce oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  54. Leukocyte
    White cells. Produce immunity.
  55. Thrombocyte
    Platelets. Formation of clot.
  56. Skeletal Muscle
    • Location: attached bones.
    • Cell Shape: cylindrical.
    • Nucleus: multinucleated & peripherally located.
    • Striations: Yes.
    • Function: Voluntary (moves the body) & Involuntary (knee jerk).
  57. Cardiac Muscle
    • Location: In the heart. 
    • Cell Shape: branch.
    • Nucleus: Single & centrally located. 
    • Striations: Yes.
    • Control: Involuntary (unconscious).
    • Ability to Contract Spontaneously: Yes. 
    • Function: Provides the major force for moving blood through the blood vessels. 
    • Special Features: Branching fibers, intercalated disks, containing gap junction joining the cells to each other.
  58. Smooth Muscle
    • Location: hollow organs.
    • Cell Shape: spingle-shape cells.
    • Nucleus: single; centrally located. 
    • Striations: No.
    • Control: involuntary (unconscious).
    • Function: moves food through the digestive tract, empties the urinary bladder. regulated blood vessel diameter, changes pupil size, contracts many gland ducts, moves hair, performs many other functions.
    • Special Features: Gap junctions.
  59. Nerve Tissue
    • Soma (cell body): nucleus, mitochandria, rough ER. 
    • Axon: sends impulse away from cell body.
    • Dendrite: relay information to the cell body.
  60. Nerve Tissues Types (Structural)
    • Mutipolar: neuron.
    • Bipolar: two poles.
    • Unipolar: one pole [one structure] that leaves the cell body.
  61. Tissue Damage & Inflammation
    [Cardinal signs]
    • Rubor: redness
    • Calor: heat
    • Tumor: swelling
    • Dolar: pain
    • Functio laesa: disturbed function
  62. Synovial Fluid
    • line freely movable joints
    • produce fluid rich in hyaluronic acid
  63. Tissue Repair [Types of Cell]
    • Labile: capable of mitosis through life. ie) skin, mucous membranes, hemopoeitic tissue, lymphatic tissue.
    • Stable: no mitosis after birth only when triggered. No mitosis after growth ends, but can divide after injury. ie) liver, pancreas, endocrine cells.
    • Permanent: no mitosis for nervous, skeletal, and cardiac muscle. If killed, replaced by a different type of cell. Limited regenerative ability.
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roadcrush
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CHAPTER 4
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2016-02-24 22:43:36
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Anatomy/Physiology I
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