History Unit 2

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  1. An era of dramatic industrial and urban growth characterized by loose government oversight over corporation, which fostered unfettered capitalism and widespread political corruption.
    • Gilded Age
    • (1860-1896)
  2. A network of political activists and elected officials, usually controlled by a powerful "boss," that attempts to manipulate local politics.
    political "machine"
  3. Conservative republican party faction during the presidency of Rutherford B Hayes, 1877-1881
    Stalwarts
  4. Led by Senator Roscoe B Conkling of New York, ______ opposed civil service reform and favored a third term for President Ulysses S Grant.
    Stalwarts
  5. As a Republican congressman from Maine, he developed close ties with business leaders, which contributed to him losing the presidential election of 1884.
    • James Gillepsie Blaine
    • (1830-1893)
  6. He opposed President Cleveland's efforts to reduce tariffs, which became a significant issue in the 188 presidential election.
    • James Gillepsie Blaine
    • (1830-1893)
  7. _____served as secretary of state under President Benjamin Harrison and his flamboyant style often overshadowed the president.
    • James Gillepsie Blaine
    • (1830-1893)
  8. Reform wing of he Republican party that supported Democrat Grover Cleveland for president in 1884 over Republican James G Blaine, whose influence peddling had been revealed in the Mulligan letters of 1876.
    Mugwumps
  9. Political movement that grew out of the Patrons of Husbandry, an educational and social organization for farmers founded in 1867.
    Granger Movement
  10. _______ had its greatest success in the Midwest of the 1870s, lobbying for government control of railroad and grain elevator rates and establishing farmers' cooperatives.
    Granger Movement
  11. Two separate organization (Northwestern and Southern) of the 1880s and 1890s that took the place of the Grange, worked for similar causes, causes, and attracted landless, as well as landed, farmers to their membership.
    Farmers' Alliance
  12. Political success of Farmers' Alliance candidates encouraged the formation in 1892 of the
    • People's party
    • Later renamed Populist party
  13. Active until 1912, it advocated in variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of railroads, and direct election of U.S. senators.
    Populist/ People's party
  14. She was a leader of the farm protest movement who advocated violence if change could not be obtained at the ballot box.
    • Mary Elizabeth Lease
    • (1850-1933)
  15. She believed that the urban-industrial East was the enemy of working class.
    • Mary Elizabeth Lease
    • (1850-1933)
  16. As a congressman, he was responsible for the McKinley Tariff of 1890, which raised the duties on manufactured products to their highest level ever.
    • William McKinley
    • (1843-1901)
  17. Voters disliked the tariff and McKinley, as well as other Republicans, lost their seats in Congress the next election.
    • William McKinley
    • (1843-1901)
  18. He won the presidential election of 1896 and raised the tariffs again
    • William McKinley
    • (1843-1901)
  19. In 1898, he annexed Hawaii and declared war on Spain.
    • William McKinley
    • (1843-1901)
  20. The war concluded with the Treaty of Paris, which gave America control over Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
    • William McKinley
    • (1843-1901)
  21. America was fighting Filipinos, who were seeking independence for their country.
    • William McKinley
    • (1843-1901)
  22. In 1901, ______ was assassinated.
    • William McKinley
    • (1843-1901)
  23. Delivered the pro-silver "cross of gold" speech at the 1896 Democratic Convention and won his party's nomination for president.
    • William Jennings Bryan
    • (1860-1925)
  24. Disappointed pro-gold Democrats chose to walk out of the convention and nominate their own candidate, which split the Democratic party and cost them the White House.
    • William Jennings Bryan
    • (1860-1925)
  25. __________ loss also crippled the Populist movement that had endorsed him.
    • William Jennings Bryan
    • (1860-1925)
  26. In the New South, these laws mandated the separation of races in various public places that served as a way for the ruling whites to impose their will on all areas of black life.
    "Jim Crow" laws
  27. In 1890, Mississippi instituted policies that led to a near-total loss of voting rights for blacks and many poor whites.
    Mississippi Plan
  28. In order to vote, the state required that citizens pay all their taxes first, be literate, and have been residents of the state for two years and one year in an electoral district.
    Mississippi Plan
  29. Convicts were banned from voting. Seven other states followed this strategy of disenfranchisement.
    Mississippi Plan
  30. Principle underlying legal racial segregation, which was upheld in Plessy V Ferguson (1896) and struck down in Brown V Board of Education (1954).
    "separate but equal."
  31. After being denied a seat on a railroad car because she was black, she became the first African American to file a suit against such discrimination.
    • Ida B. Wells
    • (1862-1931)
  32. As a journalist, she criticized Jim Crow laws, demanded that blacks have their voting rights restored and crusaded against lynching.
    • Ida B. Wells
    • (1862-1931)
  33. In 1909, she helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    • Ida B. Wells
    • (1862-1931)
  34. He founded a leading college for African Americans in Tuskegee, Alabama, and become the foremost black educator in America by the 1890s.
    • Booker T. Washing
    • (1856-1915)
  35. He believed that the African American community should establish an economic base for its advancement before striving for social equality.
    • Booker T. Washington
    • (1856-1915)
  36. His critics charged that his philosophy sacrificed educational and civil rights for dubious social acceptance and economic opportunities.
    • Booker T. Washington
    • (1856-1915)
  37. He criticized Booker T. Washington's views on civil rights as being accommodationist.
    • W. E. B. Du Bois
    • (1868-1963)
  38. He advocated "ceaseless agitation" for civil rights and the immediate end to segregation and an enforcement of laws to protect civil rights and equality.
    • W. E. B. Du Bois
    • (1868-1963)
  39. He promoted an education for African Americans that would nurture bold leaders who were willing to challenge discrimination in politics.
    • W. E. B. Du Bois
    • (1868-1963)
  40. In what year was the Supreme Court Issues Munn V Illinois decision
    1877
  41. In what year was Rutherford B Hayes inaugurated president.
    1877
  42. In what year did congress pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.
    1883
  43. In what year was Interstate Commerce Commission created?
    1887
  44. In what year was James A Garfield assassinated?
    1881
  45. In what year did congress pass the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the Sherman silver Purchase Act, and the McKinley Tariff?
    1890
  46. In what year did the Supreme Court Issues Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company V Illinois decision.
    1886
  47. In what year did Mississippi Plan re-segregate public facilities by race?
    1890
  48. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was created when?
    1909
  49. In what year did Supreme Court Issue Plessy V Ferguson decision.
    1896
  50. In what year did People's party drafts its Omaha platform?
    1892
  51. In what year did Booker T. Washing deliver his Atlanta Compromise speech?
    1895
  52. In what year did Economic depression affect a substantial proportion of the population?
    1893
  53. ____ was an advocate for sea power and Western imperialism.
    Alfred Thayer Mahan
  54. In 1890, he published The Influence of Sea Power Upon History.
    Alfred Thayer Mahan
  55. 1660-1783 in which he argued that a nation's greatest and porsperity comes from maritime power.
    Alfred Thayer Mahan
  56. He believed that America's "destiny" was to control the Caribbean, build the Panama Canal, and spread Western civilization across the Pacific.
    Alfred Thayer Mahan
  57. As the assistant secretary of the navy, he supported expansionism, American Imperialism and war with Spain.
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • (1858-1919)
  58. He led the First Volunteer Cavalry, or Rough Riders, in Cuba during the war of 1898 and used the notoriety of this military campaign for political gain.
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • (1858-1919)
  59. As President McKinley's vice president, he succeeded McKinley after his assassinations.
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • (1858-1919)
  60. His forceful foreign policy became known as "big stick diplomacy."
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • (1858-1919)
  61. Domestically, his policies on natural resources helped start the conversation movement.
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • (1858-1919)
  62. Unable to win the Republican nomination for president in 1912, he formed his own party of progressive Republicans called the "Bull Moose" party.
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • (1858-1919)
  63. In 1891, she ascended to the throne of Hawaiian royal family and tried to eliminate white control of the Hawaiian government.
    • Queen Liliuokalani
    • (1838-1917)
  64. In 1893, Hawaii's white population revolted and seized power with the support of American marines.
    • Queen Liliuokalani
    • (1838-1917)
  65. In the late 1890s, the New York Journal and its rival, the New York World, printed sensationalism on the Cuban revolution as part of their heated competition for readership.
    • William Randolph Hearst's
    • New York Journal
  66. The New York Journal printed a negative letter from Spanish ambassador about President McKinley and inflammatory coverage of the sinking of the Maine in Havana Harbor.  The events roused the American public's outcry against Spain.
    • William Randolph Hearst's
    • New York Journal
  67. In the late 1890s, the New York World and its rival, New York Journal, printed sensationalism on the Cuban revolution as part of their heated competition for readership.
    • Joseph Pulitzer's
    • New York World
  68. A type of journalism, epitomized in the 1890s by the newspaper empires of William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, that intentionally manipulates public opinion through sensational headlines about both real and invented events.
    yellow journalism
  69. Spanish ambassador Depuy de Lome wrote a letter to a friend in Havana in which he described President McKinley as "weak" and a seeker of public admiration.
    de Lome letter
  70. This letter was stolen and published in the New York Journal, which increased the American pubic's dislike of Spain and moved the two countries closer to war.
    de Lome letter
  71. On April 20, 1898, a joint resolution of Congress declared Cuba independent and demanded the withdrawal of Spanish forces.
    Teller Amendment
  72. The _______ was added to this resolution, and it declaimed any designs the United States had on Cuban territory.
    Teller Amendment
  73. On April 30, 1898, Commodore ______ small U.S. naval squadron defeated the Spanish warships in Manila Bay in the Philippines. This quick victory aroused expansionist fever in the United States.
    • George Dewey
    • (1837-1917)
  74. He was a leader in Filipino struggle for independence.
    • Emilio Aguinaldo
    • (1869?-1964)
  75. During the war of 1898, Commodore George Dewey brought _______ back to the Philippines from exile to help fight the Spanish.
    • Emilio Aguinaldo
    • (1869?-1964)
  76. America annexed the Philippines and _______ fought against the American military until he was captured in 1901.
    • Emilio Aguinaldo
    • (1869?-1864)
  77. The First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, led in battle in the Spanish-American War by Theodore Roosevelt.
    Rough Riders
  78. They were victorious in their only battle near Santiago, Cuba.
    Rough Riders
  79. Roosevelt used the notoriety to aid his political career.
    Rough Riders
  80. His work on yellow fever in Cuba led to the discovery that the fever was carried by mosquitoes.  This understanding helped develop more effective controls of the worldwide disease
    • Dr. Walter Reed
    • (1851-1902)
  81. In hopes of protecting the Chinese market for U.S. exports, Secretary of State John Hay unilaterally announced in 1899 that Chinese trade would be open to all nations.
    Open Door Policy
  82. President Theodore Roosevelt announced in what was essentially a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that the United States could intervene militarily to prevent interference from European powers in the Western Hemisphere.
    • Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    • (1904)
  83. In what year did Cuban insurrection break out against Spanish rule?
    1895
  84. Republic of Hawaii was proclaimed when?
    1894
  85. When was war of 1898?
    1898
  86. In what year did the U.S. Senate ratify the Treaty of Paris, ending the war of 1898?
    1899
  87. In what year did U.S. battleship Maine Explode in Havana Harbor?
    1898
  88. In what year did Filipino insurgents resist U.S. domination?
    1899-1902
  89. When did United States annex Hawaii?
    1898
  90. When did Panamanians revolt against Colombia?
    1903
  91. When did the Panama Canal open?
    1914
  92. In what year did the Great Fleet circumnavigate the globe in a demonstration of America's rise to the world-power status?
    1907
  93. When did the Army Fever Commission confirms the cause of yellow fever?
    1900
  94. When did the Russo-Japanese War occur?
    1905
  95. In what year did the International alliance quell the Boxer Rebellion?
    1900
  96. Preached by liberal Protestant clergymen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries advocated the application of Christian principles to social problems generated by industrialization.
    Social gospel
  97. Product of the late nineteenth-century movement to offer a broad array of social services in urban immigrant neighborhoods.
    settlement houses
  98. Chicago's Hull House was one of hundreds of _______ that operated by the early twentieth century.
    settlement houses
  99. As the leader of one of the best known settlement houses, she rejected the "do-goodism" spirit of religious reformers.
    • Jane Addams
    • (1860-1935)
  100. She focused on solving the practical problems of the poor and tried to avoid the assumption that she and other social workers knew what was best for poor immigrants.
    • Jane Addams
    • (1860-1935)
  101. She was active in the peace movement and was awarded the Noble Peace Prize in 1931 for her work on its behalf.
    • Jane Addams
    • (1860-1935)
  102. She established child care for working mothers, health clinics, job training, and other social programs.
    • Jane Addams
    • (1860-1935)
  103. Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, meat-packing, child labor, and more, primarily in the first decade of the twentieth century.
    muckrakers
  104. Their popular books and magazine articles spurred public interest in progressive reform.
    muckrakers
  105. In his book The Principles of Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor explained a management system that claimed to be able to reduce waste through the scientific analysis of the labor process.
    Taylorism
  106. The system called _______ promised to find the optimum technique for the average worker and establish detailed performance standards for each job classification.
    Taylorism
  107. An important part of the Progressive's agenda, social justice sought to solve social problems through reform and regulation.
    Social Justice
  108. Methods used to bring about _____________ ranged from the founding of charities to the legislative of a ban on child labor.
    Social justice
  109. As the head of the National Consumer's League, she led the crusade to promote state law to regulate the number of working hours imposed on women who were wives and mothers.
    • Florence Kelley
    • (1859-1946)
  110. Platform of the Progressive party and slogan of former President Theodore Roosevelt in the presidential campaign of 1912.
    New Nationalism
  111. Stressed government activism, including regulation of trusts, conservation, and recall of state court decisions that had nullified progressive programs.
    New Nationalism
  112. Legalized the federal income tax.
    Sixteenth Amendment
  113. In the 1912 election, Theodore Roosevelt was unable to secure the Republican nomination for president.
    "Bull Moose" Progressive party
  114. Theodore Roosevelt left the Republican party and formed his own party of progressive Republicans, called ______.
    "Bull Moose" Progressive party
  115. Roosevelt and Taft split the Republicans vote, which allowed Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win.
    "Bull Moose" Progressive party
  116. In the 1912 presidential election, _______ ran under the slogan of New Freedom, which promised to improve of the banking system, lower tariffs, and break up monopolies.
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • (1856-1924)
  117. He sought to deliver on these promises through passage of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff, the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, and new anti-trust laws.
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • (1856-1924)
  118. Though he was weak on implementing social change and showed a little interest in the plight of African Americans, he did eventually support some labor reform.
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • (1856-1924)
  119. At the beginning of the First World War, ______ kept America neutral, but provided the Allies with credit for purchases of supplies.
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • (1856-1924)
  120. The sinking of U.S. merchant ships and the news of Germany encouraging Mexico to attack America caused _____ to ask Congress to declare war on Germany.
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • (1856-1924)
  121. After the war on Germany, ______ supported the entry of America into the League of Nations and the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, but Congress would not approve the entry of ratification.
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • (1856-1924)
  122. Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912.
    New Freedom
  123. Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
    New Freedom
  124. The presidential _______ featured four candidates: Wilson, Taft, Roosevelt, and Debs.
    election of 1912
  125. Wilson, Taft, Roosevelt, and Debs believed in the basic assumptions of progressive politics, but each had a different view on how progressive ideals should be implemented through policy.
    election of 1912
  126. In the end, Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican party votes and Wilson emerged as the winner.
    election of 1912
  127. She was a leader of a new generation of activists in the women's suffrage movement who carried on the work started by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony.
    • Carrie Chapman Catt
    • (1859-1947)
  128. Granted women the right to vote.
    • Nineteenth Amendment
    • (1920)
  129. As a birth-control activist, she worked to distribute birth control information to working-class women and opened the nation's first family-planning clinic in 1916.
    • Margaret Sanger
    • (1883-1966)
  130. She organized the American Birth Control League, which eventually changed its name to Planned Parenthood.
    • Margaret Sanger
    • (1883-1966)
  131. Act passed by Congress in 1903, making it illegal for railroads to take as well as to give secret rebates to their favorite customers.
    Elkins Act
  132. A giant conglomerate of railroads that had a monopoly over the Great Northern and Northern Pacific lines.
    Northern Securities Company
  133. President Theodore Roosevelt ordered the company broken up in 1902, and it was dissolved by the Supreme Court in 1904.
    Northern Securities Company
  134. Passed in 1906 largely in reaction to Upton Sinclair's the Jungle, the law set strict standards of cleanliness in the meat packing industry.
    Meat Inspection Act
  135. Passed in 1906, the first law to regulate manufacturing of food and medicines; prohibited dangerous additives and inaccurate labeling.
    Pure Food and Drug Act
  136. Supreme court ruling in 1908 that upheld a ten-hour work day law for woman largely on the basis of sociological data regarding the effects of long hours on the health and morals of women.
    Muller V Oregan
  137. was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York and resulted in the fourth Highest loss of life from an industrial accident in U.S. history.
    Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire
  138. Caused the deaths of 146 garment workers, who died from the fire, smoke inhalation, or falling to their death.
    Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire
  139. Most of the victims were recent Jewish and Italian immigrant women aged sixteen to twenty three.  The oldest victim was 48, the youngest were two 14 year olds.
    Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire
  140. Glass-Owen ______ created a Federal Reserve System of regional banks and a Federal Reserve Board to stabilize the economy by regulating the supply of currency and controlling credit.
    Federal Reserve Act of 1913
  141. When did Theodore Roosevelt attempt to arbitrate the coal strike?
    1902
  142. Hull-House, a settlement house, opened in Chicago, when?
    1889
  143. When did Congress pass the Elkins Act?
    1903
  144. When did Congress pass the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act?
    1906
  145. When did the Justice Department break up Northern Securities Company?
    1902
  146. When did the Supreme Court issue Muller V Oregon decision?
    1908
  147. When did Upton Sinclair's The Jungle publish?
    1906
  148. When did Congress pass the Mann-Elkins Act?
    1910
  149. When did William Taft inaugurate president?
    1909
  150. When did Congress pass the Federal Reserve Act?
    1913
  151. When did Louis Brandeis get nominated to fill a seat on the Supreme Court?
    1916
  152. When was Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire?
    1911
  153. When was the Nineteenth Amendment, guaranteeing women's suffrage, is ratified?
    1920
  154. When did Congress pass the Clayton Anti-Trust Act?
    1914
  155. While the leader of one of the competing fractions in the Mexican civil war, he provoked the United States into intervening.
    • Francisco Pancho Villa
    • (1877-1923)
  156. He hoped attacking the United States would help him build a reputation as an opponent of the United States, which would increase his popularity and discredit Mexican President Carranza.
    • Francisco Pancho Villa
    • (1877-1923)
  157. After Pancho Villa had conducted several raids into Texas and New Mexico, President Woodrow Wilson sent troops under the command of General ______ into Mexico to stop Villa.  After a year of chasing Villa and not being able to catch him, they returned to the the United States.
    • John J. Pershing
    • (1860-1948)
  158. During the First World War, ______ commanded the first contingent of U.S. soldiers sent to Europe and advised the War Department to send additional American forces.
    • John J. Pershing
    • (1860-1948)
  159. The Taft administration's policy of encouraging American bankers to aid debt-plagued governments in Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
    dollar diplomacy
  160. A new concept of war enabled by industrialization that developed from the early 1800s through the Atomic Age.
    industrial war
  161. New technologies, including automatic weaponry, forms of transportation like the railroad and airplane, and communication technologies such as the telegraph and telephone, enabled nations to equip large, mass-conscripted armies with chemical and automatic weapons to decimate opposing armies in a "total war."
    industrial war
  162. A military submarine operated by the German government in the First World War, used to attack enemy merchant ships in war zone waters.
    Unterseeboot (or U-boat)
  163. The sinking of the ocean liner Lusitania by a German submarine caused a public outcry in America, which contributed to the demands to expand the United States Military.
    Unterseeboot (or U-boat)
  164. After America's entry into World War I, the economy of the home front needed to reorganized to provide the most efficient means of conducting the war.  The ______ was a part of this effort.
    Food Administration
  165. Under the leadership of Herbert Hoover, the organization sought to increase agricultural production while reducing civilian consumption of foodstuff.
    Food Administration
  166. During the First World War, this committee produced war propaganda that conveyed the Allies' war aims to Americans as well as attempted to weaken the enemy's morale.
    Committee on Public Information
  167. He convinced President Woodrow Wilson that the best approach to influencing public opinion was through propaganda rather than censorship.
    • George Creel
    • (1876-1953)
  168. As the executive head of the Committee on Public Information, he produced propaganda that conveyed the Allies' war aims.
    • George Creel
    • (1876-1953)
  169. Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, this Marxist party led the November 1917 revolution against the newly formed provisional government in Russia.
    Bolsheviks
  170. After seizing control, the ______ negotiated a peace treaty with Germany, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ended their participation in World War I.
    Bolsheviks
  171. Organization of nations to mediate disputes and avoid war established after the First World War as part of the Treaty of Versailles.
    League of Nations
  172. President Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points" speech to Congress in 1918 proposed the formation of the league.
    League of Nations
  173. He was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee who favored limiting America's involvement in the League of Nations' covenant and sought to amend the Treaty of Versailles.
    • Henry Cabot Lodge
    • (1850-1924)
  174. As a part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was required to confess its responsibility for the First World War and make payments to the victors for the entire expense of the war.  These 2 requirements created a deep bitterness among Germans.
    reparations
  175. Unprecedentedly lethal influenza epidemic of 1918 that killed more than 22 million people worldwide.
    Spanish Flu
  176. As the attorney general, he played an active role in government's response to the Red Scare.
    • A. Mitchell Palmer
    • (1872-1936)
  177. After several bombings across America, he and other Americans became convinced that there was a well-organized Communist terror campaign at work.
    • A. Mitchell Palmer
    • (1872-1936)
  178. The federal government launched a campaign of raids, deportations, and collecting files on radical individuals.
    • A. Mitchell Palmer
    • (1872-1936)
  179. Fear among many Americans after the First World War of Communists in particular and non-citizens in general, a reaction to the Russian Revolution, mail bombs, strikes, and riots.
    First Red Scare
  180. When did World War I begin in Europe?
    1914
  181. When did United States intervene in Mexico?
    1914
  182. When did Congress pass the National Defense Act?
    1916
  183. When did the United States enter the Great War?
    April 1917
  184. When did the British linear Lusitania, with Americans aboard, torpedo without warning by a German Submarine?
    1915
  185. When did Woodrow Wilson deliver his Fourteen Points speech?
    Jan 1918
  186. When did Zimmermann telegram reveal that Germany was attempting to incite Mexico to enter the war against the United States?
    March 1917
  187. When did Versaille is present to the Germans?
    May 1919
  188. When did Joint resolution of Congress officially end the war among the United States, Germany, and Austria-Hungary?
    July 1921
  189. When did U.S. attorney general launch Red Scare?
    1919
  190. When did the Representative of warning nations sign armistice?
    November 11, 1918
  191. When did Race riots break out in Chicago?
    1919
  192. When did Supreme Court issue Schenck V United States decision?
    1919
Author:
jamilovesu
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History Unit 2
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history unit 2
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