Psych of personality test 2

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  1. What are the 5 models of personality?
    • 1. Psychodynamic 
    • 2. Trait/Biological
    • 3. Behavioral
    • 4. Cognitive
    • 5. Humanistic
  2. What is the trait model of personality?
    Views traits as enduring elements within the person (that stabilize at some point before adulthood) which account for stability of personality across situations and over time;
  3. What does the trait model reject or minimize the influence of _____ on behavior?
    situational factors
  4. what is the major goal of the trait model?
    to develop a taxonomy for describing personality
  5. Trait theorists believe that the development of personality is more nature or nurture?
    nurture
  6. what is the research method typically used by trait theorists?
    the self-report
  7. In the psychodynamic model of personality what do they believe are the underlying forces behind human behavior?
    • Biological instincts
    • (i.e., the sexual and death/ aggression instincts) are the driving forces underlying
    • human behavior
  8. What does the psychodynamic model feel is very important in shaping personality?
    Importance of early childhood interactions with primary caretaker in shaping personality
  9. What does the psychodynamic model believe about the unconscious mind?
    The existence of an unconscious, and the fact that unconscious motivation influences human behavior more than conscious motivation
  10. what is the major motivator of human behavior according the the psychodynamic model?
    anxiety
  11. what is the psychodynamics view on humans?
    Views human beings as basically self-centered and hedonistic
  12. what aspects of humans does the psychodynamic model focus on?
    focuses on pathological (rather than healthy) aspects of human behavior;
  13. What is the revisions of freud's theory of personality?
    focused on the importance of other social ,and cultural factors (beyond the early experiences a person had with one’s primary caretaker) in influencing personality, as well as acknowledging the contribution of cognitive elements (as opposed to instincts) in influencing human behavior.
  14. What is the psychodynamic's preferred method for personality assessment? (2)
    projective tests and dream analysis
  15. which 2 models preferred method for conducting research is the clinical/case study?
    • 1. Psychodynamic 
    • 2. humanistic
  16. what are the 4 main criticisms of the psychodynamic model?
    • 1. Subjective and unscientific;
    • 2. Focuses too much on the unhealthy personality as opposed to the normal/healthy personality;
    • 3. The concept of unconscious motivation and the use of projective tests to measure it;
    • 4. Resistant to scientific evaluation
  17. What are the 2 main criticisms towards the biological/trait model?
    • 1. Descriptive rather than explanatory (i.e. does not explain in detail the dynamics of trait development)
    • 2. Lack of agreement with respect to the number of traits necessary to describe personality
  18. What is the preferred method of research for the trait/biological model?
    Correlational method of research (examining statistical relationships between traits and/or specific behaviors
  19. What is the preferred method for personality assesment for the trait/biological model?
    Self-report (forced choice) personality tests/inventories
  20. What does the trait/biological model do?
    Identification of a limited number of measurable traits that can be employed to meaningfully discriminate individual differences in personality
  21. what do biological theories attempt to do?
    identify biological factors (chemical and structural) responsible for individual differences with respect to traits;
  22. What is a unique biological theory?
    Evolutionary psychology
  23. what is the evolutionary psychology theory?
    attempts to explain human behavior with respect to its adaptive value — specifically, those behaviors and traits that are most conducive to the survival of the human species will have the highest likelihood of being perpetuated and passed on to future generations.
  24. According to the psychodynamic model human behavior is primary due to?
    Heredity is a factor, but early childhood environmental experiences with one’s primary caretaker are the most critical factor
  25. According to the trait/biological model human behavior is primary due to?
    heredity
  26. Which three models of personality believes human behavior is primary due to environment?
    • 1. Behavioral
    • 2. Cognitive
    • 3. Humanistic
  27. which two models of behavior believes that human behavior is primarily attributed to traits?
    • 1. psychodynamic
    • 2. trait/biological
  28. what two models of behavior believe that human behavior is primary attributed to situational factors?
    • 1. Behavioral
    • 2. Humanistic
  29. What are the two things that the cognitive model believes that human behavior is primarily attributed to?
    to situational factors, but also affected by cognitive elements within the individual
  30. which two models of personality believes that personality stabilizes at some point?
    • 1. psychodynamic
    • 2. trait/biological
  31. When does the psychodynamic model believe when personality stabilizes?
    early childhood
  32. Does the trait/biological model give a specific time for when personality stabilizes?
    no
  33. which three models believe that personality remains flexible?
    • 1. Behavioral
    • 2. Cognitive
    • 3. Humanistic
  34. which 3 models believe that it is acceptable to study covert behavior?
    • 1. Psychodynamic 
    • 2. Cognitive
    • 3. Humanistic
  35. which model of personality does not believe that it is acceptable to study covert behavior?
    behavioral
  36. which 2 models believe that human behavior is primarily the result of the people being proactive?
    • 1. Cognitive
    • 2. Humanistic
  37. which 2 models believe that human behavior is primarily the result of the people being reactive ?
    • 1. psychodynamic
    • 2. behavioral
  38. Behavioral model believes what kind of behavior should only be studied?
    overt behavior
  39. behavioral model believes that human behavior is primarily based on what?
    Human behavior is primarily the result of learning and is controlled by the reinforcement consequences (i.e. history of rewards and punishments) of a person’s behavior
  40. what are The two most important principles for explaining human learning according to the behavioral model?
    principle of contiguity and the principle of reinforcement;
  41. what are the keys to behavioral modification based on the behavioral model?
    Identification of target behaviors, and the antecedent events (triggers) and consequent events (reinforcements and punishment) associated with the target behaviors
  42. why was the behavioral model developed?
    reaction against the psychodynamic model, which it viewed as subjective and unscientific
  43. What is the preferred method for personality assessment by behaviorists?
    Quantification of overt behavior through observation and behavioral checklists
  44. which 2 models preferred method for conducting research is the experimental/scientific method?
    • 1. Behavioral 
    • 2. Cognitive
  45. what is the main criticism of the behavioral model?
    Dehumanizing and mechanistic
  46. what are the 2 main criticisms towards the cognitive model?
    • 1. Lack of agreement with respect to cognitive constructs 
    • 2. Lack of agreement with regard to the degree cognitive constructs versus situational factors impact behavior
  47. What are the 3 main criticisms of the humanistic model?
    • 1. Subjective and unscientific
    • 2. Overly simplistic explanation of human behavior
    • 3. Naively romantic in its depiction of human nature and the ease with which disturbed people can be changed.
  48. what are the preferred methods for personality assessment by the cognitive model?
    Quantification of overt behavior through observation and behavioral checklists and other methods of recording a person's cognitions/thoughts
  49. what are the two preferred methods for personality assessment for the humanistic model?
    • 1. Verbal self reporting by an individual of his or her phenomenal field — i.e., how he/she perceives and experiences reality
    • 2. Q-Sort (type of personality test employed by Carl Rogers)
  50. What is the cognitive model?
    an expansion of the Behavioral model believing that most human behavior is the result of learning, but also to include covert behavior (primarily thinking/ cognition) in the analysis of personality
  51. what is the main focus for the cognitive model?
    focus on the superior cognitive abilities of humans
  52. the cognitive emphasizes on the importance of?
    social factors (i.e., observation and imitation) in human learning;
  53. what does the cognitive model identify?
    internal cognitive elements (such as cognitive constructs/ themas/ templates) that interact with situational factors to explain human behavior.
  54. What is the humanistic model?
    Emphasizes the uniqueness of human beings, and the importance of using different explanatory mechanisms for explaining human behavior as opposed to explaining the behavior of nonhuman species
  55. What does the humanistic model focus on?
    the importance of a human being’s subjective perception and experience of reality
  56. what is a person's phenomenal field/phenomenology?
    subjective perception and experience of reality
  57. the humanistic model views humans as?
    Views human beings as basically decent and predisposed toward helping others
  58. the humanistic model was made in the reaction of what two models?
    developed as a reaction to the psychodynamic and behavioral model
  59. the humanistic model focuses more on cognitions or emotions?
    emotions
  60. What is the first law of David Funder's law of personality?
    • Great strengths are usually great weaknesses, and surprisingly often the opposite is true as well
    • means that one aspect of a model or theory may have great strength in explaining and predicting behavior but may be very weak in explaining another aspect of personality and behavior
  61. What is the second law of David Funder’s Laws of Personality?
    • There are no perfect indicators of personality: there are only clues, and clues are always ambiguous
    • means that there is no perfect way to measure personality and two different methods could lead to inconsistent results
  62. What is the third law of David Funder’s Laws of Personality?
    • Something beats nothing two times out of three
    • ex. getting information on an applicant instead of just randomly selecting one
  63. What is the fourth law of David Funder’s Laws of Personality?
    There are only two kinds of data. The first kind is Terrible Data: data that are ambiguous, potentially misleading, and imprecise. The second kind is No Data. Unfortunately there is no third kind of data, anywhere in the world
  64. what are the two elements needed in precision?
    quantification and control
  65. what is relevance?
    studies people in real life circumstances
  66. which method of research sacrifices precision for relevance?
    case study method
  67. which method of research sacrifices relevance for precision?
    experimental method
  68. which method of research provides a blend of both relevance and precision?
    correlation method
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gabby12142
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Card Set:
Psych of personality test 2
Updated:
2016-02-24 01:38:59
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psych of personality test 2
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