Anthropology 1

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Anthropology 1
2009-12-15 13:41:34
Cultural Anthropology Final

Cultural Anthropology Final
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  1. Bride Service
    Groom provides services/labor to the bride’s family for the bride
  2. Bride Price
    Paying for a bride by the groom (or his family)
  3. Dowry 1
    Woman's family pays to the grooms family upon the marriage. In the event of divorce, the groom's family keeps the dowry
  4. Dowry 2
    Mother gives wealth/money/possessions to the daughter upon her marriage. In the event of divorce, the bride keeps it
  5. Family
    Family is a group of people related by blood or marriage
  6. Household
    Household is a group of people that share a household, not necessarily related or living in the same house
  7. Lineal
    Someone who either had something to do with your birth (parent, grandparent) or you are directly involved with their birth (child, grandchild)
  8. Collateral
    Everyone who is not directly involved with your existence
  9. Extended,
    Three generations or more of a family
  10. Nuclear
    Parents and children
  11. Bilocal
    Newlyweds can live with either set of parents anytime
  12. Patrilocal
    Newlyweds live with the father's family; woman incorporated into the husband's family; woman doesn’t know anyone; husband's family gains help with the chores
  13. Matrilocal
    Newlyweds live with the mother's family, men are strangers to each other, men can help with the work
  14. Neolocal
    Newlyweds live on their own; independence and isolation in times of trouble
  15. Ambilocal
    First year newlyweds live with either parent. After that they must choose a side for permanent residence
  16. Affinal
    Related by blood
  17. Consanguineal
    Related by marriage
  18. Unilineal Decent
    Decent is determined through one, either the male or female
  19. Bilateral Decent
    Decent is determined through both the male and the female lines, both are equally important
  20. Cognatic Decent
    Decent is determined through either the male line or the female line
  21. Parallel Cousins
    Parents are siblings of the same sex
  22. Cross Cousins
    Parents are siblings of the opposite sex
  23. Moeities
    Largest decent group; divided into exactly two decent groups (a moeity has two phratries)
  24. Phratries
    Unilineal decent group of two or more clans with a common ancestor, either real or mythical (they are subdivided into clans)
  25. Clans
    Unilineal decent group that traces their ancestry back to one common ancestor, either real or mythical (they are subdivided by lineage)
  26. Lineages
    smallest unilineal decent group composed of several families whose members are able to trace their descent through males or females from a known common ancestor who lived 4 or 5 generations in the past
  27. Eskimo
    Collaterals are equally imporant and are lumped together. No distinction is made either through lineage or generation
  28. Hawaiian
    Generationally equal. Mother, Father, Sistere, Brother, Grandparents. No uncles, aunts, cousins.
  29. Sudanese/Descriptive
    Every person has a specific title based on their distance from Ego, their relation, and their gender
  30. Kindreds
    All relatives through marriage and blood
  31. Definition and Functions of Religion
    • Sociological; socially cohesive by instilling common values, controlling behavior and creating solidarity
    • Intelectual/Cognative; defines and explains the supernatural and natural and explains man's place between the two; explains things too difficult to understand
    • Psychological; provides comfort in times of trouble, sense of fraternity/sorority with other believers
  32. Supernatural vs. Preternatural
    Supernatural deals with things that actually exist outside the natural world; Preternatural deals with things that have no explanation outside the natural world
  33. Ecclesiatical
    Religious rituals are carried out by people assigned to the roll (priests, priestesses); cannot talk directly to god, need and intercessor
  34. Shamanism
    Individualistic and based on the idea that individuals speak directly to gods; shamans only intercede when the individual cannot obtain results on their own
  35. Animatism
    Engery can be tapped and used for good or evil
  36. Polytheism
    Belief in many gods with one more powerful than the others
  37. Shamans
    Shamans part time religious specialist; culturally defined special relationships with the supernatural, which are often used for healing or hunting magic; contact the supernatural through trance states; may be born, buy or train into shamanism, crisis management, work independantly
  38. Priests
    Priests are full time religious specialists who do not work independantly, usually have a heirarchy, highly trained, (used to) live better than the population, perform regular rituals rather than crisis management
  39. Magic
    Manipulation of the supernatural for specific reasons
  40. Imative Magic
    like produces like (how a voodoo doll works)
  41. Contagious Magic
    power comes from contact
  42. Rituals:
    Rites of Passage: be able to identify 3 phases. Be able to give one example. Rituals designed to move individuals from one status to another; 1) Separation of the individual from others 2) Transition where the individual learns how to be a full member of society 3) Reincorporation into society
  43. Monotheism
    Belief in one god
  44. Pantheon
    Belief in many gods, each equally powerful
  45. Animism
    Belief in nature spirits; belief that nature and man are equal
  46. Rites of Intensification
    Religious rites designed to sway the supernatural for the good of the group (ie, harvest rituals)
  47. Revitalization Movements
    Organized movement which help people deal with rapid change; Charismatic leader who tells people what is wrong with the world and how to change it
  48. Nativistic
    Return the world to a prior state (Handsome Lake, Wovoka's Ghost Dance, Red Stick Movement)
  49. Messianic
    Charismatic leader who followers believe is the messiah; promises changes to in the future (either in this life or the next)
  50. Millenarian
    Charismatic leader who convinces followers the world is about to end; followers must prove devotion to the leader (Jim Jones, Heaven's Gate)
  51. Cargo Cults
    Melanesain movement where the natives believe that Cargo God will give them wealth (cargo) and they will switch places with Europeans-including physical appearance
  52. Definition of Marriage
    Anthropologically speaking, it defines the relationship between two people that allows for sexual access between the two, legitimizes children, allows for child rearing and forms a discrete economic unit.
  53. What marriage does - the purposes it has been believed to serve & why
    Marriage provides material support and sustinence between people who would otherwise have not have interacted with each other; Defines obligations between spouses and extended families
  54. Endogamy
    Marriage in one’s own social class, villiage or extended family
  55. Exogamy
    Marriage outside one’s own social class, villiage or extended family
  56. Preferred
    Who you should marry
  57. Prescribed
    Who you will marry
  58. Proscribed
    Who you will not marry
  59. Hypergamy
    Marrying up one's class (based on marriage practices of married men)
  60. Hypogamy
    Marrying down one's class (based on marriage practices of married men)
  61. Strict vs. Serial Monogamy
    Strict means one partner for life. Serial means one partner at a time
  62. Polygyny
    One husband, many wives
  63. Polyandry
    One wife, many husbands
  64. Group
    A group who essentially practices polygyny and polyandry. All the men are married to all the women and vice versa
  65. Fraternal Polyandry
    Brothers share the same wife
  66. Sororal Polygyny
    Sisters share the same husband
  67. Levirate
    Man marries his brother's widow
  68. Sororate
    Man marries his dead wife's sister