Upper Extremity Muscles

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Author:
rustemk
ID:
31641
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Upper Extremity Muscles
Updated:
2010-08-28 22:08:42
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Upper Arm Extremity Muscles Shoulder Hand Forearm
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Description:
Origin, Insertion, Action, and Innervation of the Muscles of the Upper Extremity
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  1. Adductor Pollicis
    • Origin:
    • Oblique Fibers - Capitate bone and bases of the second and third metacarpal bones
    • Transverse Fibers - Palmar surface of the third metacarpal bone
    • Insertion:
    • Transverse Head - Into ulnar side of base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb
    • Oblique Head - Into extensor expansion
    • Action: Adducts the CMC joint, adducts and assists in flexion of MCP joint, so that thumb moves toward plane of palm. Aids in opposition. May assist in extending IP joint.
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C8, T1
  2. Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    • Origin: Flexor retinaculum, tubercle of the trapezium and tubercle of the scaphoid
    • Insertion: Base of proximal phalanx of the thumb, radial side and extensor expansion
    • Action: Abducts CMC and MCP joints of thumb in ventral direction, perpendicular to plane of palm. Extends IP joint of thumb. Assists in opposition and may assist in flexion and medial rotation of MCP joint.
    • Innervation: Median, C6-T1
  3. Opponens Pollicis
    • Origin: Flexor retinaculum and tubercle of trapezium
    • Insertion: Entire length of first metacarpal bone, radial side
    • Action: Opposes CMC joint of thumb
    • Innervation: Median, C6-T1
  4. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin: Anterior surface of body of radius below tuberosity, interosseous membrane, medial border of coronoid process of ulna, and/or medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb, palmar surface
    • Action: Flexes IP joint of thumb, assists in flexion of MCP and CMC joints; may assist in flexion of wrist
    • Innervation: Median, C(6), 7, 8, T1
  5. Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    • Origin:
    • Superficial Head - Flexor retinaculum and trapezium
    • Deep Head - Trapezoid and capitate
    • Insertion: Base of proximal phalanx of thumb, radial side and extensor expansion
    • Action: Flexes MCP and CMC joints of thumb, and assists in opposition. May extend IP joint.
    • Innervation:
    • To Superficial Head - Median, C6-T1
    • Ulnar, C8, T1
  6. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin: Middle 1/3 of posterior surface of ulna distal to origin of abductor pollicis longus, and to the interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb, dorsal surface
    • Action: Extends IP joint, assists in extension of MCP and CMC joints of thumb. Assists in abduction and extension of wrist.
    • Innervation: Radial, C6, 7, 8
  7. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    • Origin: Posterior surface of body of radius distal to origin of abductor pollicis longus, and ot the interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Base of proximal phalanx of the thumb, dorsal surface
    • Action: Extends MCP of thumb, extends and abducts CMC of thumb. Assists in abduction (radial deviation) of wrist
    • Innervation: Radial, C6, 7, 8
  8. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin: Posterior surface of body of ulna distal to origin of supinator, interosseous membrane, and posterior surface of middle 1/3 of body of radius
    • Insertion: Base of first metacarpal bone, radial side
    • Action: Abducts and extends the CMC joint of the thumb, abducts (radial deviation) and assists in flexing the wrist
    • Innervation: Radial, C6, 7, 8
  9. Opponens Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
    • Insertion: Entire length of fifth metacarpal bone, ulnar side
    • Action: Opposes CMC joint of little finger by lifting ular border of hand, helps cup palm of hand
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C(7), 8, T1
  10. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris and pisiform
    • Insertion: By two slips: one into base of proximal phalanx of little finger, ulnar side and one into ulnar border of extensor expansion
    • Action: Abducts, assists in opposition, and may assist in flexion of MCP joint of little finger. May assist in extension of IP joints
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C(7), 8, T1
  11. Flexor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
    • Insertion: Base of proximal phalanx of little finger, ulnar side
    • Action: Flexes MCP joint of little finger, assists in opposition of little finger
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C(7), 8, T1
  12. 1st Dorsal Interossei
    • Origin:
    • Lateral Head - Proximal 1/2 of ulnar border of first metacarpal
    • Medial Head - Radial border of second metacarpal bone
    • Insertion: Into extensor expansion and to base of radial side of index finger, chiefly to proximal phalanx
    • Action: Abducts the index finger from axial line through 3rd digit, assist in flexion of MCP joints and extension of IP joints, assists in adduction of thumb
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C8, T1
  13. 2nd-4th Dorsal Interossei
    • Origin: Adjacent sides of metacarpal bones in each interspace
    • Insertion: Into extensor expansion and to base of proximal phalanx as follows:
    • 2nd - Radial side of middle finger
    • 3rd - Ulnar side of middle finger, chiefly into extensor expansion
    • 4th - Ulnar side of ring finger
    • Action: Abducts middle and ring fingers from axial line through the 3rd digit, assist in flexion of MCP joints and extension of IP joints of same fingers
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C8, T1
  14. Palmar Interossei
    • Origins:
    • 1st - Length of first metacarpal bone, ulnar side
    • 2nd - Length of second metacarpal bone, ulnar side
    • 3rd - Length of fourth metacarpal bone, radial side
    • 4th - Length of fifth metacarpal bone, radial side
    • Insertions: Chiefly into extensor expansion of respective digit with possible attachment to base of proximal phalanx as follows:
    • 1st - Ulnar side of thumb
    • 2nd - Ulnar side of index finger
    • 3rd - Radial side of ring finger
    • 4th - Radial side of little finger
    • Action: Adducts thumb, index, ring and little finger toward axial line through third digit. Assists in flexion of MCP joints and extension of IP joints of the three fingers.
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C8, T1
  15. Lumbricales
    • Origin:
    • 1st and 2nd - Radial surface of flexor profundus tendons of index and middle fingers, respectively
    • 3rd - Adjacent sides of flexor profundus tendons of middle and ring fingers
    • 4th - Adjacent sides of flexor profundus tendons of the ring and little fingers
    • Insertion: Into radial borders of extensor expansion on dorsum of respective digits
    • Action: Extend IP joints and simultaneously flex MCP joints of second through fifth digits. Also extend IP joints when MCP joints are extended. As fingers are extended, flexor digitorum profundus tendons offer passive resistance to this movement; because of their attachment the lumbricales can diminish this resistive tension by contracting and pulling tendons distally, decreasing contractile force needed to exten finger joints.
    • Innervation:
  16. Palmaris Longus
    • Origin: Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle of humerus and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Insertion: Flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
    • Action: Tenses palmar fascia, flexes wrist, and may assist in flexion of the elbow
    • Innervation: Median, C(6), 7, 8, T1
  17. Palmaris Brevis
    • Origin: Ulnar border of palmar aponeurosis and palmar surface of flexor retinaculum
    • Insertion: Skin on ulnar border of hand
    • Action: Corrugate skin on ulnar side of hand
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C(7), 8, T1
  18. Extensor Indicis
    • Origin: Posterior surface of body of ulna distal to origin of extensor pollicis longus, and interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Into extensor expansion of index finger with extensor digitorum longus tendon
    • Action: Extends MCP joint, and in conjunction with lumbricalis and interossei, extends IP joints of intex finger. May assist in adduction of index finger.
    • Innervation: Radial, C6, 7, 8
  19. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Insertion: Into extensor expansion of little finger with extensor digitorum tendon
    • Action: Extends MCP joint, and in conjunction with lumbricalis and interosseous, extends IP joints of little finger. Assists in abduction of little finger.
    • Innervation: Radial, C6, 7, 8
  20. Extensor Digitorum
    • Origin: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Insertion: By four tendons, each penetrating membranous expansion on dorsum of second through fifth digits and dividing over proximal phalanx into medial and two lateral bands. Medial band inserts into base of middle phalanx; lateral bands reunite over middle phalanx and insert into base of distal phalanx.
    • Action: Extends MCP joints, and in conjunction with lumbricales and interossei, extends IP joints of 2nd through 5th digits. Assists in abduction of index, ring, and little fingers and in extension and abduction of wrist.
    • Innervation: Radial, C6-8
  21. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • Origin:
    • Humeral Head - Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle of humerus, ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint, and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Ulnar Head - Medial side of coronoid process
    • Radial Head - Oblique line of radius
    • Insertion: By 4 tendons into side of middle phalanges of second through fifth digits
    • Action: Flexes proximal IP joints of second through fifth digits, and assists in flexion of MCP joints and wrist
    • Innervation: Median, C7-T1
  22. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    • Origin: Anterior and medial surfaces of proximal 3/4 of ulna, interosseous membrane and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Insertion: By four tendons into bases of distal phalanges, anterior surface
    • Action: Flexes distal IP joints of index, middle, ring, and little fingers; assists in flexion of proximal IP and MCP joints, may assist in wrist flexion.
    • Innervation:
    • 1st and 2nd - Median, C7, 8, T1
    • 3rd and 4th - Ulnar, C7, 8, T1
  23. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Origin: Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle of humerus and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Insertion: Base of second metacarpal and slip to base of third metacarpal
    • Action: Flexes and abducts wrist, may assist in pronation of forearm and in flexion of elbow
    • Innervation: Median, C6, 7, 8
  24. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin:
    • Humeral Head - Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Ulnar Head - By aponeurosis from medial margin of olecranon, proximal 2/3 of posterior border of ulna and from deep antebrachial fascia
    • Insertion: Pisiform and, by ligaments, to hamate and fifth metacarpal
    • Action: Flexes and adducts wrist, may assist in flexion of elbow
    • Innervation: Ulnar, C7, 8, T1
  25. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • Origin: Distal 1/3 of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Dorsal surface of base of second metacarpal, radial side
    • Action: Extends and abducts wrist, assists in flexion of elbow
    • Innervation: Radial, C5, 6, 7, 8
  26. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • Origin: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral ligament of elbow joint, and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Insertion: Dorsal surface of base of third metacarpal
    • Action: Extends and assists in abduction of wrist
    • Innervation: Radial, C6, 7, 8
  27. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus, by aponeurosis from posterior border of ulna and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Insertion: Base of fifth metacarpal, ulnar side
    • Action: Extends and adducts wrist
    • Innervation: Radial, C6, 7, 8
  28. Pronator Teres
    • Origin:
    • Humeral Head - Immediately above medial epicondyle of humerus, common flexor tendon and deep antebrachial fascia
    • Ulnar Head - Medial side of coronoid process of ulna
    • Insertion: Middle of lateral surface of radius
    • Action: Pronates forearm, assists in flexion of elbow joint
    • Innervation: Median, C6-7
  29. Pronator Quadratus
    • Origin: Medial side, anterior surface of distal 1/4 of ulna
    • Insertion: Lateral side, anterior surface of distal 1/4 of radius
    • Action: Pronates forearm
    • Innervation: Median, C7, 8, T1
  30. Supinator
    • Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral ligament of elbow, annular ligament of radius and supinator crest of ulna
    • Insertion: Lateral surface of upper 1/3 of body of radius, covering part of anterior and posterior surfaces
    • Action: Supinates forearm
    • Innervation: Radial, C5, 6, (7)
  31. Biceps Brachii
    • Origin:
    • Short Head - Apex of coracoid process of scapula
    • Long Head - Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
    • Insertion: Tuberosity of radius and aponeurosis of biceps brachii
    • Action: Flexes shoulder joint and elbow joint. Short head assists with shoulder adduction. Long head may assist with abduction if humerus is laterally rotated.
    • Innervation: Musculocutaneous, C5, 6
  32. Brachialis
    • Origin: Distal 1/2 of anterior surface of humerus and both medial and lateral intermuscular septa
    • Insertion: Tuberosity and coronoid process of ulna
    • Action: Flexes elbow joint
    • Innervation: Musculocutaneous and small branch from Radial, C5-6
  33. Triceps Brachii
    • Origin:
    • Long Head - Infraglenoid Tubercle of scapula
    • Lateral Head - Lateral and posterior surfaces of proximal 1/2 of body of humerus and lateral intermuscular septum
    • Medial Head - Distal 2/3 of medial and posterior surfaces of humerus below radial groove and from medial intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Posterior surface of olecranon process of ulna and antebrachial fascia
    • Action: Extends elbow. Long head also assists in adduction and extension of shoulder.
    • Innervation: Radial, C6, 7, 8, T1
  34. Anconeus
    • Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, posterior surface
    • Insertion: Lateral side of olecranon process and upper 1/4 of posterior surface of body of ulna
    • Action: Extends elbow, and may stabilize ulna during pronation and supination.
    • Innervation: Radial, C7-8
  35. Brachioradialis
    • Origin: Proximal 2/3 of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus, and lateral intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Lateral side of base of styloid process of radius
    • Action: Flexes elbow, assists in pronating and supinating forearm when movements are resisted
    • Innervation: Radial, C5-6
  36. Anterior Deltoid
    • Origin: Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, anterior border
    • Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
    • Action: Abduction of shoulder
    • Innervation: Axillary, C5-6
  37. Pectoralis Major, Upper
    • Origin: Anterior surface of sternal 1/2 of clavicle
    • Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle of humerus
    • Action: Flexion, medial rotation, and horizontal adduction
    • Innervation: Lateral Pectoral, C5-7
  38. Pectoralis Major, Lower
    • Origin: Sternum, cartilages of six or seven ribs
    • Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle of humerus
    • Action: Depression of shoulder girdle and adduction of humerus obliquely downward
    • Innervation: Lateral and Medial Pectoral, C6-T1
  39. Coracobrachialis
    • Origin: Apex of coracoid process of scapula
    • Insertion: Middle shaft of humerus, opposite deltoid tuberosity
    • Action: Flexion and adduction of shoulder joint
    • Innervation: Musculocutaneous, C6-7
  40. Middle Deltoid
    • Origin: Acromion, lateral margin and superior surface
    • Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
    • Action: Abduction of shoulder joint
    • Innervation: Axillary, C5-6
  41. Posterior Deltoid
    • Origin: Spine of scapula, inferior lip of posterior border
    • Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
    • Action: Abduction of shoulder joint
    • Innervation: Axillary, C5-6
  42. Supraspinatus
    • Origin: Supraspinous fossa of scapula, medial 2/3
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus, shoulder joint capsule
    • Action: Abduction of shoulder joint
    • Innervation: Suprascapular, C4, 5, 6
  43. Infraspinatus
    • Origin: Infraspinous fossa of scapula, medial 2/3
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus, shoulder joint capsule
    • Action: Lateral rotation of shoulder
    • Innervation: Suprascapular, C(4), 5, 6
  44. Subscapularis
    • Origin: Subscapular fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus, shoulder joint capsule
    • Action: Medial rotation of shoulder
    • Innervation: Upper and Lower Subscapular, C5, 6, 7
  45. Teres Major
    • Origin: Inferior angle and lateral border of scapula
    • Insertion: Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus
    • Action: Medial rotation, adduction and extension of shoulder
    • Innervation: Lower subscapular, C5, 6, 7
  46. Teres Minor
    • Origin: Dorsal surface, lateral border of scapula, upper 2/3
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus, shoulder joint capsule
    • Action: Lateral rotation of shoulder joint
    • Innervation: Axillary, C5-6
  47. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Origin: Spinous processes of seventh through twelfth thoracic vertebrae, through fascia from the lumbar and sacral vertebrae, last three or four ribs, posterior 1/3 of iliac crest and slip from inferior angle of scapula
    • Insertion: Intertubercular grooves of humerus
    • Action: Medial rotation, adduction, and extension of shoulder
    • Innervation: Thoracodorsal, C6-8
  48. Subclavius
    • Origin: First costal cartilage
    • Insertion: Inferior surface of acromial end of clavicle
    • Action: Pulls shoulder forward and downward
    • Innervation:
  49. Pectoralis Minor
    • Origin: Third through fifth ribs near cartilages
    • Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula
    • Action: Pulls shoulder forward and downward
    • Innervation: Medial pectoral, with fibers from communicating branch of lateral pectoral; C(6), 7, 8, T1
  50. Serratus Anterior
    • Origin: Upper eight or nine ribs
    • Insertion: Medial border, costal surface of scapula
    • Action: Scapular abduction and rotation (upward by upper fibers and downward by lower fibers)
    • Innervation: Long thoracic, C5, 6, 7, 8
  51. Trapezius, Upper Anterior
    • Origin: Occiput and cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: Lateral 1/3 of clavicle
    • Action: Elevation of clavicle
    • Innervation: Spinal portion of Accessory nerve, CN XI; Ventral ramus, C2, 3, 4
  52. Trapezius, Upper Posterior
    • Origin: Occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line, ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of C7
    • Insertion: Acromial process of scapula
    • Action: Elevation and lateral rotation of scapula
    • Innervation: Spinal portion of Accessory nerve, CN XI; Ventral ramus, C2, 3, 4
  53. Trapezius, Middle
    • Origin: Spinous processes of T1-5
    • Insertion: Medial margin of acromion and superior lip of spine
    • Action: Adduction and assistance with lateral rotation of scapula
    • Innervation: Spinal portion of Accessory nerve, CN XI; Ventral ramus, C2, 3, 4
  54. Trapezius, Lower
    • Origin: Spinous processes of T6-12
    • Insertion: Tubercle at apex of spine of scapula
    • Action: Adduction, depression, and assistance with lateral rotation of scapula
    • Innervation: Spinal portion of Accessory nerve, CN XI; Ventral ramus, C2, 3, 4
  55. Levator Scapulae
    • Origin: Transverse processes of C1-4
    • Insertion: Medial border between superior angle and root of spine
    • Action: Elevation and assistance with downward rotation of scapula
    • Innervation: C3 and C4; Dorsal scapular, C4-5
  56. Rhomboid Minor
    • Origin: Ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes C7, T1
    • Insertion: Root of spine of scapula, medial border
    • Action: Adduction, elevation, and downward rotation of scapula
    • Innervation: Dorsal Scapular, C4, 5
  57. Rhomboid Major
    • Origin: Thoracic vertebrae, spinous processes T1-5
    • Insertion: Scapula, medial border between spine and inferior angle
    • Action: Adduction, elevation, and downward rotation of scapula
    • Innervation: Dorsal Scapular, C4, 5

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