still photography for filmmakers

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  1. FILM SPEED
    THE MEASUREMENT OF A FILM’S OR CCD’S (CHARGED COUPLER DEVICE ON A DIGITAL CAMERA) SENSITIVITY TO LIGHT AS EXPRESSED BY THE ASA NUMBER

    i.e. A FILM WITH AN ASA OF 200 IS TWICE AS SENSITIVE TO LIGHT (OR TWICE AS FAST) AS A FILM WITH AN ASA OF 100. ASA 400 IS FOUR TIMES AS FAST AS ASA 100 AND SO ON. ONE CAN ALSO SAY THERE IS A ONE STOP DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 100 AND 200. THERE IS A TWO STOP DIFFERNCE BETWEEN 100 AND 400 ASA AND SO ON. THIS NUMBER MUST BE SET ON THE CAMERA EITHER MANUALLY OR AUTOMATICALLY.
  2. EXPOSURE controls DENSITY
    -- WHICH IS THE AMOUNT OF SILVER DARKENED AFTER DEVELOPMENT ON EITHER FILM OR PAPER. LIGHT SENSITIVE SILVER HALIDES ARE SUSPENDED IN A GELATIN COATING WHICH FORM THE EMULSION LAYER ON BOTH FILM AND PAPER
  3. GELATIN SILVER PRINT
    ANOTHER NAME GIVEN TO A BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPH
  4. EXPOSURE
    = AMOUNT OF LIGHT ALLOWED THROUGH THE LENS BY THE APERTURE OR F-STOP LENS OPENING – in conjunction with -- THE DURATION OF TIME THAT THE LIGHT IS ALLOWED THROUGH THE LENS AS CONTROLLED BY THE SHUTTER SPEED. THE COMBINATION OF THE TWO DETERMINES HOW MUCH LIGHT STRIKES THE FILM OR DIGITAL SENSOR TO MAKE AN EXPOSURE.
  5. APERTURE
    EXPRESSED IN F-STOPS SUCH AS F2, F2.8, F4.0, F5.6, F8, F11, F16, F22. THE SMALLER NUMBERS ALLOW MORE LIGHT IN THAN THE LARGER NUMBERS. F2 ALLOWS IN TWICE AS MUCH LIGHT AS F4; F4 ALLOWS TWICE AS MUCH LIGHT AS F5.6 AND SO ON
  6. SHUTTER SPEEDS
    EXPRESSED IN FRACTIONS OF SECONDS OR WHOLE SECONDS SUCH AS 1SEC, ½ SEC, ¼ SEC, 1/8 SEC, 1/15 SEC, 1/30 SEC, 1/60 SEC, 1/125 SEC, 1/250 SEC, 1/500 SEC, 1/1000 SEC ETC. ½ SECOND IS TWICE AS LONG AS ¼ SEC; ¼ SEC IS TWICE AS LONG AS 1/8 SEC AND SO ON.
  7. OVEREXPOSED OR DENSE
    TOO MUCH LIGHT HITS THE FILM
  8. UNDEREXPOSED OR THIN
    NOT ENOUGH LIGHT HITS THE FILM
  9. WHY DO WE HAVE SO MANY CHOICES OR COMBINATIONS WHEN ANY ONE CORRECT EXPOSURE WILL DO
    BECAUSE APERTURE AND SHUTTER SPEED ALSO AFFECT TWO OTHER CREATIVE TOOLS THAT HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH EXPOSURE.
  10. DEPTH OF FIELD
    WHICH IS THE RANGE OF SHARPNESS WITHIN A PHOTOGRAPH FROM FOREGROUND TO BACKGROUND

    ALSO CONTROLLED BY APERTURE
  11. SHUTTER SPEED
    CONTROLS NOT ONLY THE TIME THAT LIGHT HITS THE FILM, BUT IT ALSO CONTROLS WHETHER OR NOT ANY MOTION OF THE SUBJECT IS SHOWN. FAST SHUTTER SPEEDS CAN STOP MOTION. SLOW SHUTTER SPEEDS CAN SHOW MOTION.
  12. THREE FACTORS AFFECT DEPTH OF FIELD AND ARE INTERRELATED
    • APERTURE OR F-STOP
    • FOCAL LENGTH OF LENS
    • DISTANCE FROM CAMERA TO SUBJECT
  13. THE SMALLER THE LENS APERTURE (HIGHER NUMBERS),
    THE GREATER THE DEPTH OF FIELD
  14. THE WIDER THE LENS APERTURE (LOWER NUMBERS),
    THE MORE SHALLOW THE DEPTH OF FIELD
  15. WIDE ANGLE LENSES
    HAVE GREAT DEPTH OF FIELD
  16. TELEPHOTO LENSES
    HAVE SHALLOW DEPTH OF FIELD
  17. AS YOU MOVE CLOSER TO THE SUBJECT THE DEPTH OF FIELD BECOMES
    MORE SHALLOW
  18. AS YOU MOVE AWAY FROM THE SUBJECT THE DEPTH OF FIELD BECOMES
    GREATER
  19. REFLECTED EXPOSURE METER
    MEASURES THE LIGHT REFLECTED BY THE SUBJECT
  20. INCIDENT EXPOSURE METERS
    MEASURES THE LIGHT FALLING ON THE SUBJECT
  21. REFLECTED METERS ARE GENERALLY
    CENTER WEIGHTED, SPOT, OR MATRIX. SOME CAMERAS PROVIDE ALL OPTIONS.
  22. EXPOSURE METER
    AVERAGES ALL THE LIGHT REFLECTED FROM THE AREA MEASURED AND PLACES IT ON MIDDLE GRAY
  23. MIDDLE GRAY
    IS A TONE THAT REFLECTS 18% OF THE LIGHT THAT HITS IT. IT IS HALF WAY BETWEEN WHITE AND BLACK
  24. GRAY CARDS
    ARE AVAILABLE TO PHOTOGRAPHERS AS AN AID IN DETERMINING EXPOSURE.
  25. REFLECTED METERS CAN BE “FOOLED” BY
    VERY LIGHT TONED OR WHITE OBJECTS AND BY BRIGHT BACKGROUNDS. CONVERSELY, THEY CAN BE “FOOLED” BY VERY DARK TONED OR BLACK OBJECTS AND BY DARK BACKGROUNDS

    .i.e. WHEN PHOTOGRAPHING AN OBJECT THAT IS ALL WHITE OR VERY LIGHT IN TONE, THE EXPOSURE METER PLACES IT AT MIDDLE GRAY ON THE NEGATIVE WHEN, IN REALITY, ANYTHING WHITE OR LIGHT TONED SHOULD BE DENSER THAN MIDDLE GRAY ON THE NEGATIVE (LIGHTER THAN MIDDLE GRAY IN A POSITIVE REVERSAL FILM OR DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESS.) THEREFORE, THE PHOTOGRAPHER SHOULD “OVERULE” THE METER AND ALLOW ONE TO TWO STOPS MORE EXPOSURE THAN INDICATED. BRACKET TO BE SAFE.
  26. BRACKETING
    TAKING MORE THAN ONE EXPOSURE OF A SCENE.  

    i.e. TAKE ONE SHOT AT THE METER READING; TAKE A SECOND SHOT WITH ONE STOP MORE LIGHT; TAKE A THIRD SHOT WITH ONE STOP LESS LIGHT
  27. LATITIDE
    (MARGIN FOR ERROR) THAT ALLOWS A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF UNDER OR OVEREXPOSURE WITHOUT SACRIFICING THE ABILITY TO OBTAIN A “GOOD” IMAGE. NEGATIVE FILM HAS GREATER LATITUDE THAN REVERSAL FILM OR DIGITAL PROCESSES AND THE LATITUDE FOR OVEREXPOSURE IS GREATER THAN FOR UNDEREXPOSURE

    IN SUMMARY, FOR BLACK AND WHITE NEGATIVE PHOTOGRAPHY, THERE IS THE SIMPLE, AGE-OLD PHOTOGRAPHIC ADAGE – EXPOSE FOR THE SHADOWS AND DEVELOP FOR THE HIGHLIGHTS
  28. WITH DIGITAL IMAGING OR REVERSAL (TRANSPARENCY) FILM
    . IT IS BETTER TO UNDEREXPOSE THAT TO OVEREXPOSE. WITH OVEREXPOSURE THE DETAIL IS MISSING IN THE HIGHLIGHTS (CLEAR ON THE TRANSPARENCY, BLOWN OUT DIGITALLY). THUS, WITH DIGITAL IMAGING AND COLOR REVERSAL FILM, EXPOSE FOR THE HIGHLIGHTS.
  29. AT THE END OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY LORD WILLIAM THOMSON KELVIN
    DEVEOPED A SCALE TO MEASURE THE COLOR QUALITY OF LIGHT. IT IS NOW KNOWN AS THE KELVIN SCALE AND THE COLOR OF LIGHT IS MEASURED IN KELVIN DEGREES
  30. WHEN WHITE LIGHT IS PASSED THROUGH A PRISM, IT IS SEPARATED INTO DIFFERENT COLORS AS IN A RAINBOW
    KELVIN NOTED THAT THE TEMPERATURE OF EACH COLOR AS MEASURED BY A HIGHLY ACCURATE MERCURY THERMOMETER WAS SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT
  31. WARM OR RED QUALITY OF LIGHT
    MEASURED IN LOWER DEGREE NUMBERS
  32. COOL OR BLUE QUALITY OF LIGHT
    MEASURED IN HIGHER DEGREE NUMBERS
  33. THE KELVIN SCALE DOES NOT RECOGNIZE LIGHT FROM THE GREEN PART OF THE SPECTRUM
    THERE ARE SEVERAL ARTIFICIAL LIGHT SOURCES THAT ARE PREDOMINANTLY GREEN IN THE COLOR OF THE LIGHT THAT THEY EMIT -- FOR EXAMPLE, FLOURESCENT AND MERCURY VAPOR. THE GREEN CAST OF THESE LIGHTS CAN BE CORRECTED BY USING MAGENTA FILTERS OVER THE LENS. VARYING DEGREES OF MAGENTA, THE COMPLELMENTARY COLOR TO GREEN, ARE USED DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF FLOURESCENT TUBE OR MERCUTY VAPOR BULB. TESTING, COLOR CORRECTION TABLES, AND COLOR METERS ARE USED TO DETERMINE THE PROPER AMOUNT OF FILTRATION FOR FILM
  34. THE KEY OR MAIN LIGHT
    THIS LIGHT SETS THE OVERALL DIRECTION, INTENSITY AND ANGLE. IT IS THE PREDOMINENT LIGHT SOURCE
  35. THE FILL LIGHT
    THIS LIGHT FILLS IN THE SHADOWS CREATED BY THE MAIN LIGHT. CAN ALSO USE REFLECTORS OF VARIOUS TYPES AS A FILL
  36. BACKGROUND LIGHT
    LIGHTS THE BACKGROUND OF THE SCENE WHETHER IT IS SEAMLESS PAPER, A BACKDROP, OR A SETTING
  37. ACCENT LIGHTS
    THERE ARE VARIOUS TERMS WHICH DESCRIBE THE MANY WAYS THAT ACCENT LIGHTS CAN BE USED. THE MOST COMMON ARE HAIR LIGHT (SELF-EXPLANATORY) AND KICKER, WHICH COULD BE ANY LIGHT USED TO PROVIDE AN EXTRA HIGHLIGHT.
  38. HARD LIGHT
    REFERS TO THE QUALITY OR FORM OF LIGHT IN WHICH THERE ARE SHARP DISTINCT SHADOWS. THEREFORE, A HIGHER CONTRAST CAN BE ESTABLISHED BETWEEN HIGHLIGHT AND SHADOW. A SPOTLIGHT, A FRESNEL LIGHT, OR THE SUN ON A CLOUDLESS DAY ARE EXAMPLES
  39. SOFT LIGHT
    REFERS TO THE QUALITY OR FORM OF LIGHT IN WHICH THE SHADOWS CREATED ARE LESS DISTINCT (SOFTER). A LOWER CONTRAST CAN BE ESTABLISHED. A CLOUDY DAY, A “SOFT BOX” LIGHT SOURCE, OR A BANK OF OVERHEAD FLOURESCENT LIGHTS WOULD BE EXAMPLES
  40. WHEN ANY TYPE OF LIGHT SOURCE, WHETHER HARD OR SOFT, IS MOVED AWAY FROM THE SUBJECT,
    THE LIGHT WILL BECOME PROPORTIONATELY HARDER AND THE SHADOWS MORE DISTINCT
  41. THE LIGHTING RATIO
    IS DETERMINED BY THE DIFFERENCE IN INTENSITY AS MEASURED IN F- STOPS BETWEEN THE MAIN LIGHT AND THE FILL LIGHT.   IF THERE IS A ONE-STOP DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEM, IT IS CONSIDERED A 2 TO 1 RATIO BECAUSE A ONE STOP DIFFERENCE IS TWICE AS MUCH LIGHT.   IF THERE IS A TWO STOP DIFFERENCE, IT IS A 4 TO 1 RATIO BECAUSE A TWO-STOP DIFFERENCE IS 2x2 OR FOUR TIMES AS MUCH LIGHT. IF THERE IS A THREE-STOP DIFFERENCE, IT IS AN 8 TO 1 RATIO BECAUSE A THREE STOP DIFFERENCE IS 2X2X2 OR EIGHT TIMES AS MUCH LIGHT.   (A 3 TO 1 RATIO WOULD BE A STOP AND A HALF DIFFERENCE AND A 6 TO 1 RATIO WOULD BE A TWO AND A HALF STOP DIFFERENCE.)
  42. THE CONTRAST BETWEEN HIGHLIGHTS AND SHADOWS BECOMES GREATER AS THE RATIO BECOMES
    HIGHER
  43. THE INTENSITY OF THE FILL LIGHT IS CONTROLLED BY
    THE DISTANCE AND/OR THE POWER (WATTAGE) OF THE UNIT.
  44. FLASHING
    (EXPOSING THE COLOR NEGATIVE TO A BRIEF EXPOSURE OF WHITE LIGHT BEFORE DEVELOPMENT) WHICH CAN REDUCE CONTRAST, BUT IT WILL ALSO REDUCE COLOR SATURATION. MANY CINEMATOGRAPHERS EMPLOY THIS TECHNIQUE FOR AESTHETIC REASONS. HOWEVER, FOR THE MOST PART, THE TONAL RANGE MUST BE CONTROLLED WITH LIGHTING TO BRING DARK SHADOWS WITH NO DETAIL INTO A RANGE WHERE THE CHOSEN AMOUNT OF DETAIL CAN BE SEEN ON THE FILM.
  45. THE ZONE SYSTEM
    HAS TEN ZONES FROM BLACK (ZONE 0) TO WHITE (ZONE 10). THE ZONE SYSTEM PROVIDES POINTS OF REFERENCE (ZONES) TO DETERMINE TONAL VALUES OR RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN A PHOTOGRAPH OR A SCENE. IT THUS BECOMES A SYSTEM THAT CAN BE USED TO DETERMINE LIGHT, EXPOSURE AND DETAIL

    THERE IS A ONE-STOP DIFFERENCE FROM EACH ZONE TO THE NEXT. THE OTHER TWO ZONES WHICH HAVE THE MOST IMPORTANCE ARE ZONES 3 AND 7. ZONE 3 IS THE DEEPEST SHADOW THAT STILL HAS DETAIL AND TEXTURE READILY VISIBLE WITHIN IT. ZONE 7 IS THE BRIGHTEST HIGHLIGHT THAT STILL RETAINS DETAIL AND TEXTURE. ZONE 3 IS TWO STOPS LESS LIGHT THAN ZONE 5 AND ZONE 7 IS TWO STOPS MORE LIGHT THAN ZONE 5. ZONE 3 TO ZONE 7 ENCOMPASSE FIVE STOPS AND THIS IS A SAFE RANGE THAT MANY STILL PHOTOGRAPHERS AND CINEMATOGRAPHERS LIKE TO STAY WITHIN - WITH THE USUAL MULTITUDE OF EXCEPTIONS
Author:
dudekarate
ID:
316467
Card Set:
still photography for filmmakers
Updated:
2016-02-25 02:02:25
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still photography for filmmakers
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still photography for filmmakers
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