Psych Test 1 2016

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Make internal attributions for other peoples behaviors and external for our own
What is going on outside of the person to make sense of what is happening
• This is how they are as a person, like being cut off means that person is always the cut off person
• Dispositional
4. Why do we act the way we do?
• The need to feel good about ourselves
• Self-Esteem
• Justifying past behavior
• Suffereing and Self Justification
• The need to feel we are right/accurate
• We all need to belong
5. 3 Commonsense Errors
• Hindsight Bias - I knew it all along
• Overconfidence Error - My view is the right view
• Perceiving order in random events
6. Methods Used to Make Decisions
• Observational - Description
• Correlational - Prediction
• Experimental - Causality
7. Observational Method
• Systematic recording, measure, and interpreting behaviors.
• Limits: Bias of person collecting data and no power to predict or explain phenomena
8. Correlational Method
• The relationship between two variables
• Benefits: Examine things that may be difficult to observe without statistical analysis
• Cons: Correlation =/= causation
9. Correlation coefficient
• Representing how much you can predict one variable from another
• Scale/Range [+1.00, -1.00]
10. Interpreting Correlations
• INC: Inc in one predicts inc in other
• DEC: Inc in one predicts dec in other
• NONE: Inc in one doesn't predict in other
11. Experimental Method
• Random assignment to two or more conditions
• IV - See if something causes change in outcome
• DV - The outcome
12. Null Hypothesis
Something that you are trying to disprove
13. P Value
We want a number that is smaller than .05 which means there is less that 5% chance that your findings are due to random chance
14. Type 1 Error
Rejecting a null hypothesis when it's true
15. Type 2 Error
Accepting the null when it's not true
16. Basic Research
• Intellectual curiosity, theory and methods
• Ex. Does smiling predict happiness?
17. Applied Research
• Solving a problem
• Ex. Will people follow directions to commit atrocities towards others, if they are told to do so?
18. Social Cognition
• How we think about ourselves/others
• Select, interpret, remember
19. Automatic Thinking
Non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, effortless
20. Controlled Thinking
Conscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful
21. Schemas
• Very similar to stereotypes
• Help us navigate the world around us and how we approach people
• Based on suggestions around us it can influence a schema.
• Also a form of judgmental heuristic
22. Self Fulfilling Prophecy
Our expectations influence our behavior, and then you will act on that behavior, and then that behavior will influence others to act in the way that we expect them to act
23. Heuristics
Mental Shortcuts
24. Availability Heuristic
Based on how easily an idea comes to mind
25. Representative Heuristic
• Based on how similar something is to a typical case.
• In our minds we have prototypes of people and based on description of someone you can make a judgment based on the characteristics
26. Base Rate Information
• Ex. Attending the University College of London tells us that it is most likely a British Student
• This type is used when other heuristics are not available.
27. Embodied Cognition
• Multiple levels of analysis: Schemas based on physical, mental and environmental
• We can be primed by the sensorimotor feedback of our own bodies.
28. Primed
Suggesting an idea that will influence how you think about something temporarily
29. Korsakov's Syndrome
Lose the ablility to form new memories
30. Power of Unconscious thinking
• "Cocktail Party"
• Fast
• Economical
• Smart
31. Change Blindness
• We perceive what we expect to perceive
• Perception of reality is coherent (what you make sense of) is not an indication of accurate awareness
32. Analytic Thinking Style
• Focus on object without considering surrounding
• Context
• Common in the west
33. Holistic Thinking Style
• Focus on the overall context, relation between objects
• Common in the east
34. Automatic Thinking Pitfalls
• Incomplete picture of reality based on biased information processing.
• Highly subjective, difficulty establishing common ground
35. Controlled Thinking
• Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
• Ability to decide and act accordingly
36. Confabulation
• Something that is unconsciously molding your behavior.
• - Like a report
• - Not accurate
• - Used to rationalize what you did
37. Counterfactual Thinking
Thoughts about the way things might have been, if things were different in the past.
38. Counterfactual Thinking Positive Consequences
Motivation to improve in future
39. Counterfactual Thinking Negative Consequences
• - Repetitive focus on negative things (loss of loved one)
• - Associated with depression
40. Controlled (Conscious) Thinking Pitfalls
• Ignoring "gut feeling"
• Poor use of mental effort
• - Rumination
• Overconfidence
41. Social Perception
The study of how we form and make impressions of an inferences about other people
42. Nonverbal Communication
• The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words.
• Expressions of emotions, attitudes and personality
43. Types of Nonverbal Communication
• Facial Expressions
• Tone of voice
• Gestures
• Body position
• Movement
• Use of touch
• Gaze
44. Encoding
• The person who is doing the action like smiling.
• To express or emit nonverbal behavior
45. Decoding
• The person who is seeing the action is the decoding, like the smile.
• To interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior of others
46. Six (five?) Primary Emotions
• Anger
• Happiness
• Surprise
• Fear
• Disgust
47. Other Emotional Expressions
• Guilt
• Shame
• Embarrassment
• Pride
48. Implicit Personality Theory
• Schemas used to categorize others' personality
• - Observing behavior
• - Infer feelings, traits, and motives (fill in the blanks)
• - Use schemas about which personality traits go together in one person
49. Implicit Personality Theory, Pros and Cons
• - Form impressions quickly
• - Make incorrect assumptions
• - Stereotypical thinking
• We try to determine why people do what they do in order to uncover the feelings and traits that are behind their actions
• - Helps us understand and predict our social world
51. How do we infer that causes of people's behavior?
• Internal - Dispositional
• External - Situational
52. Rudimentary Self-Concept
• Some primates
• HUmans at age 18-24 months
53. Child's self-concept
based on age, sex, neighborhood, and hobbies
54. Maturing Self-concept
Based more on psychological states and how others see us
55. Interdependent View of Self
• Based on relationships.
• Behavior is shaped by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
• Mostly Easter View
56. Independent View of the Self
• Based on internal thoughts, feelings, and actions
• Mostly western view
57. Relational Interdependence
• Focus on close relationships
• Usually the focus of girls in America
58. Collective Interdependence
• Focus on memberships in larger groups
• Usually the focus of boys in America
59. Introspection
The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives.
60. Social Comparison Theory
We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparison to others
61. Fixed Mindset
We have a set amount of an ability, cannot change
62. Growth Mindset
Abilities are malleable, we can grow
63. Self-Perception Theory
Is this how I act all the time
64. Intrinsic Motivation
Based on enjoyment, interest
65. Extrinsic Motication
Based on external reasons like reward and punishment
Given regardless of how well the task is done
67. Performance contingent rewards
Based on how well we perform an task
68. Two Factor Theory of Emotion
• We experience emotions in a two step process.
• Starts by experiencing physiological arousal then we seek an appropriate explanation for it