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what is psychology?
the study to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns
what are the 4 Ds that define an abnormal disorder
Deviance, Danger, Distress, Dysfunction
Definition of a mental disorder, according to DSM5
- 1. present distress
- 2. Functioning impairment
- 3. Increased suffering
- 1. A culturally accepted response
- 2. Deviant behavior
- 3. Conflicts between and individual and a society (expressing individuality)
What is borderline personality disorder and how is it characterized
A patterns in early adulthood of instability in interpersonal relationships. Very impulsive, reckless with intense mood swings. Intense fear of abandonment and paranoia from it.
What does APA mean?
American Psychiatric Association
- The breeding of a perfect race
- Positive- more births with desirable traits
- Negative- stopping birth of undesirable traits
- -The study of epidemics
- -The study of the distribution of disorders, diseases, and abnormal behavior in a population
- the rate of occurrence of a given population over a given period of time
- ex. incidence of 4% people in 1 year
the relative proportion of active cases that can be identified at a given time
total proportion of people in a pop who have EVER had the disorder (cured and non cured)
- -the study of origin/cause of a disorder
- -the apparent causation/development of a disorder
a forecast of the probable course of an illness
physical causes, the root of a disorder
caused by physical problems, like hormones
Origin that is psychological in nature
What kind of a psychologist is one that treats human emotional difficulties
Treatments to abnormal psychology in the past
- Trephination-surgical removing circle from skull
- Limiting yellow or black bile (Hippocrates)
- Exorcisms of demons
- Rise of mental asylums
- Then put in prisons or out of the street
developed by who?
a form of discussion that helps people gain insight into their unconscious processes.
- sometimes by free association-when a person lays down and talks about what comes to mind
- sometimes more direct and the therapist watching the persons resistance to talking about things that are emotionally hard
4 types of psychotropic medications
study and enhancement of positive feelings such as optimism and happiness, positive traits, etc.
what is needed for it to be treatment?
a patient, a therapist, and a series of therapeutic contacts
Paradigm/Model- perspectives made to explain events. Each one spells out a scientist’s basic assumption.
Types of Etiological models
think of the spectrum of them
- -biological basis:physical cause
- -psychoanalytic:psychological cause
- -cognitive/behavioral:thinking that underlies behavior patterns and how they're learned
- -humanistic:values and choices
- -social factors:social and cultural forces
role of hippocampus
regulates emotions and memory
violent emotional outbursts, memory loss, suicidal thoughts, involuntary movements, absurd beliefs
describe the neurological process thought to effect abnormal behavior
issue with neuron-neuron
impulses go from neuron, to neuron's dendrites down to the axon, and is transmitted from axon to other dendrites
what is a synapse
the space between two neurons
what do neurotransmitters do?
jump between synapses relaying a message to the receptors
what is schizophrenia and what does the book say might cause it?
-disorder marked by hallucinations, delusion, and departures from reality
-exposure to certain viruses during childhood or before birth
3 main types of biological treatments
- psychotropic drugs
- ECT-shock therapy
why is the psychodynamic model considered "dynamic"
the way their unconscious forces interact with each other leads to the emotion that leads to the abnormal behavior
no behavior is accidental, it comes from something
cuts connections between the brain's frontal lobes and lower regions
true or false?
psychoanalysis refers to normal both and abnormal function according to Freud?
What 3 forces shape the personality, according to Freud?
- ID- instinctual needs
- EGO- the rational thinking
- SUPEREGO- provides moral standards, the developing of a conscious
What strategies does the ego employ to control the id?
repression, denial, regression, projection, rationalization, displacement, intellectualization
what is repression?
person avoids anxiety by not letting painful thoughts become conscious
person refuses to acknowledge the problems existence
a person saying their bad impulses are actually coming from someone else
creating a socially acceptable reason for their unacceptable behavior or motive
a person takes their anger from one situation, and shows the hostility towards another safer person
when a person suppresses emotion and gives an overly logical response to a problem
a person encounters a conflict that causes them to behave in a way that would only be acceptable in an early developmental stage
3 types of behavioral conditioning
- operant conditioning- learning behavior based on rewards received
- modeling- learning by observing others
- classical conditioning- when 2 events occur close together in time so association is formed
3 basic concepts of behavioral model
stimulus, response, reward
what is cognitive-behavioral therapy
therapy that helps clients change bad behaviors and dysfunctional thinking
what is the cognitive model
is focuses on thoughts and the process of thinking, remembering, and anticipating
Focuses on broader dimension of human existence. Self Actualization- fulfill the potential for goodness + growth. Leads to naturally take care of needs of others, loving, courageous, spontaneous and independent behavior.
what is the meaning of life
- focuses on immediate awareness
- they look at different parts of themselves
a therapist sits down with a group of people with similar problems
people with similar problems gather together without therapist or leadership
3 characteristics of assessment tools
- standardized-common steps to be administered
- reliability-consistency of measurements
- validity-measurement must be accurate
clients interpret vague stimuli like inkblots or ambiguous pictures or follow open-ended questions
use of colored inkblots that were folded in half to make pictures
thematic appreciation test
black and white peoples on people in vague situation, patient is asked to make up a story for them
what is MMPI
a personal inventory test
showing emotional shallowness or gross regard for social customs
obsessions, compulsions, indecisiveness
overactivity of excitement, or ideas
a cluster of symptoms
How does DSM-5 require clinicians to make a proper diagnosis
- categorical- what it is
- and dimensional-how severe it is
Define factitious disorder in DSM-5
develops a physical problem to get attention
-person has an honest concern for themselves with a physical manifestation
- -vcodes in DSM-5
- -faking a disorder for ones own gain, maybe to get out of something
2 types of personality tests
objective and projective
a therapists own feelings, history, and values influence the way they interpret the patient's problems
4 parts of endocrine system
- pituitary gland-growth
- thyroid-regulates thyroid
- pineal-body rhythms, sleep, etc
- adrenals-adjustments to stress, arouses body
limbic system (4 things)
what does each do
- associated with emotional response
- thalamus-switchboard for sensory info
- hypothalamus- regulation of behaviors
- amygdala- fear
- hippocampus-long term memory
what? inhibit? or excite?
can inhibit and excite
what? inhibit? or excite?