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What physiologic functions are regulated by Ca2+? (4)
muscle contraction, nerve and cardiac function, enzymatic reactions, immune function
Disturbances in Ca2+ can result in... (4)
poor rumen and intestine motility (down on feed), poor productivity, increased susceptibility to metabolic/infectious disease, increased risk for culling
What are common anionic salts used in DCAD diet?
sulfate or chloride
Calcium loss in ___________ is 20x higher than blood.
What problem does DCAD diet control on a dairy?
CLINICAL cases of milk fever (subclinical remains a problem)
Consequences of subclinical hypocalcemia. (8)
2x increased NEFAs and BHBA post-partum (12DIM), decreased neutrophils, decreased oxidative stress and phagocytosis, decreased Magnesium, increased risk of milk fever, 3x increased risk for metritis, increased risk for endometritis, increased days open
Does bovikalc administration after calving reduced incidence of hypoCa2+?
reduced clinical milk fever, reduced transition diseases in lame cows, increased milk yield in high producing cows, BUT DID NOT reduce incidence of SUBCLINICAL hypoCa2+
What should urine pH be on the DCAD diet?
6.0-6.8 [>10% of cows are higher than 6.8, alarm level]
What should serum [Ca2+] be within 24hr of calving in fresh cows and heifers [alarm level]?
- Alarm level for cows: >15% cows <8.0 mg/dL
- Alarm level for heifers: >1% heifers <8 mg/dL
What are the underlying principals to maintain blood calcium concs? (3)
maximize ability of gut to absorb Ca2+ (dry matter intake), bone to mobilize Ca2+, and kidney to reabsorb Ca2+
What should DCAD be in pre-fresh cows and fresh cows?
- -15 to -20 mEq/100g DM pre-fresh
- +24-40 in fresh cows
What are the most important parameters in water management?
potassium, sodium, chloride, sulfur [DCAD ions]
How does assisted calving affect movement and DMI of a cow?
moves less (metritis, pain), DMI drops (not getting up to eat)
Describe type 1 ketosis, its cause, and its management/ prevention.
- classic ketosis: 14-20d post-partum, respond well to glucose
- cause: low grain, high fat, low quality forages
- management: 25% starch, >17% protein in diet for fresh cows
Describe type 2 ketosis, is cause, and its management,
- Peripartum ketosis: <14d post-partum, does not respond well to glucose, fatty liver
- cause: increased fat in liver pre-partum (over stocking, cows not laying down/ cow comfort issues)
- management: energy during dry/pre-partum period
What animals are at highest risk for ketosis (esp. type 2)?
over-conditioned cows and heifers
What 2 parameters should you monitor for ketosis management?
activity monitors (how many hours are the cows lying down), NEFAs
For every _______ of lost rest, cows sacrifice __________.
3min; 1min of dry matter intake
What factors are associated with lying time? (4)
bedding surface, milking frequency (must have proper facility to milk 3x or else cows sacrifice resting time), stocking density, grouping (heifers housed with cows will not perform as well)
How much rest should cows get per day?
- Fresh: 12-14hr
- Lactating: 11-13hr
What are the 2 basic concepts of prevention?
- Leading risk factors: DMI indirectly via resting time, stocking density, cow comfort
- Lagging indicators: metritis, RP, DA
- Must monitor leading risk factors to prevent!!!!!! Lagging indicators don't help you identify the cause and help you prevent.
Metabolic predictors of DA. (3)
high NEFAs pre-partum, high BHBA post-partum, milk fat: protein ratio > 1.5
How do cows end up with high NEFAs/BHBA?
they are not eating...negative energy balance
What is the role of the veterinarian in transition cow management?
monitor leading and lagging risk factors: leading risk factors are used to identify problems and design the prevention program--> lagging factors are used to monitor progress/efficacy of program
Although there is no way to directly measure DMI, how can we estimate it?
leading indicators: NEFAs, milk:fat protein ratio, SCC
What are biomarkers of cyclicity and breeding programs?
Monitor "lying time" to determine... (3)
potential problems with DMI, negative energy balance, increased standing time is associated with lameness
What are biological markers we can use to assess the metabolic profile of cows on a dairy? What are these indicators of?
urine pH (if on DCAD diet), NEFAs, total Ca2+, and BHBA--> to determine negative energy balance (ketosis) and hypocalcemia [also helps assess immune status]