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How are Seismic Waves caused?
- -When energy is released, during an earthquake, as a fault ruptures.
- -radiate away in all directions from the focus (hypocenter)
- -2 types: 1) body 2) surface
- -2 types of body waves 1) Primary(travels faster) 2)Secondary waves( arrive second)
- -recorded on seismographs
Modified Mercalli Intensity scale
evaluate the effects of earthquakes, based on observed effects
Why moderate sized quakes don't relieve the stress (and prevent) a larger quake
Loma Prieta was not "The big one" nor will it prevent it
Characteristics corresponding to magnitude
- 1) Longer length of rupture, larger the magnitude
- Fault segmants and their "characteristic magnitude"
- 2) More offset, larger magnitude
- 3) Larger magnitude: longer shaking (also related to groundtype)
Geologic factors which affect level of earthquake damage
- 1) Magnitude of the earthquake
- 2) distance from the epicenter/ fault
- 3)local "ground" type: solid rock or
- unconsolidated ground ex: Alluvium (amplifies shaking; may liquefy
- 4) Duration of shaking
- 5)Focusing of the seismic waves
Why do some areas have higher damage than expected (on their basis of their distance from the epicenter)?