CHAPTERS 6-8

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  1. Functions of the Skeletal System
    • Support. Bone is hard and rigid; cartilage is flexible yet strong.  Cartilage in nose, external ear, thoracic cage and trachea.
    • Connect body parts. Ligaments - bone to bone. 
    • Protection. Skull around brain; ribs, sternum, vertebrae protect organs of thoracic cavity. 
    • Movement. Produced by muscles on bones, via tendons. Ligaments allow some movement between bones but prevent
    • excessive movement. 
    • Storage. Ca2+ and Phosphorus. Stored then released as needed. Adipose tissue stored in marrow cavities.
    • Blood cell production. Hemopoietic tissues formation of blood cells. Bone marrow (produces all three) that gives rise to blood cells (red = erythrocytes, white = leukocytes, and platelets = thrombocytes).
  2. Components of the Skeletal System
    • Bones:
    • compact bone
    • spongy (trabecular or cancellous) bone 
    • Cartilages:
    • Hyaline cartilage
    • Fibrocartilage
    • Elastic cartilage
    • Tendons:
    • attachment of muscle to bone 
    • Ligaments:
    • attachment of bone to bone
  3. Osteoblasts
    Immature bone cell. Formation of bone through ossification or osteogenesis.
  4. Ossification
    In which bones are formed. Formation of bone by osteoblasts.
  5. Osteocyte
    Maintain the bone matrix. Mature bone cells.
  6. Osteoclasts
    • Destructive bone cell.
    • Resorption of bone.
  7. Which two (2) cells are involved in bone remodeling?
    Osteoclast and Osteoblast
  8. Irregular Bones
    Vertebrae and facial bones.
  9. Flat Bones
    Ribs, sternum, skull, and scapulae.
  10. Short Bones
    Carpals and tarsals bones.
  11. Long Bone
    Upper and lower limbs.
  12. Structural Classification of Bone
    • Long: Ex. Upper and lower limbs. 
    • Short: Ex. Carpals and tarsals. 
    • Flat: Ex. Ribs, sternum, skull, scapulae. 
    • Irregular: Ex. Vertebrae, facial.
  13. Structure of Long Bone
    • Dyaphysis: Shaft 
    • Epiphysis: End (tips) of the bone 
    • Epiphyseal plate: Growth plate. Present until growth stops. 
    • Epiphyseal line: Bone stops growing in length (former growth Epiphyseal plates become lines). 
    • Periosteum: Outer covering (membrane) of long bone. 
    • Medullary cavity: Center of dyaphysis is hallow cavity.  It is lined with spongy bone known as Edosteum. 
    • Edosteum: Inner lining of the hallow (Medullary) cavity. 
    • Sharpey's Fibers: act as glue to attach the periosteum to the dyaphysis (bone).
  14. Type of disease when you lack vitamin D if you are a child?
    Rickets
  15. Type of disease when you lack vitamin D if you are an adult?
    Osteomalacia
  16. Flats bones
    No dyaphysis or epiphysis
  17. Short and Irregular Bone
    No dyaphysis and not elongated.
  18. Calcium Homeostasis
    • PTH (parathyroid hormone): is going to favor an increase in blood calcium level.
    • Calcitonin: is going to favor a decrease in blood calcium level.
  19. Bone healing (healing)
    • 1. Hematoma
    • 2. Callus formation
    • 3. Callus ossification
    • 4. Bone remodeling
  20. Type of disease when you lack vitamin C?
    Scurvy
  21. Body [Terms of bones]
    Main part of bone.
  22. Head [Terms of bones]
    Enlarged end. Bony protrusion carried on a neck.
  23. Neck [Term of bones]
    constriction between head and body
  24. Margin or border [Term of bones]
    Edge.
  25. Angle [Term of bones]
    bend
  26. Ramus [Term of bones]
    Arm-like bar of bone. Branch off body.
  27. Condyle [Term of bones]
    Smooth round articulating surface.
  28. Facet [Term of bones]
    Small articulating face. Small flattened articular surface.
  29. Process [Bone projections]
    Prominent projection.
  30. Tubercle [Bone projections]
    Small (rounded) bump.
  31. Tuberosity [Bone projections]
    Large bump (knob).
  32. Trochanter [Bone projections]
    Very large bump (on femur). Tuberosities on proximal femur.
  33. Epicondyle [Bone projections]
    near or above condyle
  34. Fossa [Depressions in bone]
    Shallow depression. General term for a depression.
  35. Notch [Depressions in bone]
    Depressed margin. Depression in bone margin.
  36. Fovea [Depressions in bone]
    Small or little pit.
  37. Groove or sulcus [Depressions in bone]
    Deep and narrow depression.
  38. Line or linea [Ridges in bone]
    A very low ridge.
  39. Crest or crista [Ridges in bone]
    Prominent ridge.
  40. Spine [Ridges in bone]
    Very high ridge.
  41. Foramen [Openings in bone]
    Hole.
  42. Canal or meatus [Openings in bone]
    Tunnel. Channel-like passage.
  43. Fissure [Openings in bone]
    Narrow slit-like opening. Cleft.
  44. Foramen [Plural Forms]
    Foramina
  45. Sulcus [Plural Forms]
    Sulci
  46. Ramus [Plural Forms]
    Rami
  47. Fossa [Plural forms]
    Fossae
  48. Sinus or labyrinth [Openings in bone]
    Cavity in a bone.
  49. Axial Skeleton
    • Skull
    • Mandible 
    • Hyoid bone

    • Bony Thorax:
    •  a. Sternum
    •  b. Rib cage (12 pairs)

    Vetebral column

    Sacrum

    Coccyx
  50. Appendicular Skeleton
    Clavicle 

    • Scapula
    • Humerus

    Radius

    • Pelvic bone
    • Ulna

    • Carpal bones (8)
    • Metacarpals (5)
    • Phalanges (14)

    • Femur
    • Patella 

    • Tibia
    • Tibia 

    • Tarsals (7)
    • Metatarsals (5)
    • Phalanges (14)
  51. What are the three major foramina?
    • Foramen Rotundum 
    • Foramen Spinosum
    • Foramen Ovale
  52. Lateral Wall [Nasal Cavity]
    • Superior concha: belong to ethmoid bone.
    • Middle concha: belong to ethmoid bone.
    • Inferior concha: Does not belong to the ethmoid bone. A bone by iteself.
  53. Nasal Septum [Nasal Cavity]
    • Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
    • Vomer
    • Septal cartilage
  54. Squamous Suture
    • Parietal bone
    • Temporal bone
  55. Sagittal Suture
    Parietal bones
  56. Lamboid Suture
    • Parietal bones 
    • Occipital bone
  57. Coronal (Frontal) Suture
    • Frontal bone 
    • Parietal bones
  58. Facial Bones
    • Zygomatic
    • Nasal
    • Palatine
    • Lacrimal
    • Inferior concha
    • Vomer
    • Maxilla
    • Mandible
    • Frontal bone is also part of the facial bones.
  59. Cranium [Skull]
    • Frontal bone (1)
    • Parietal bone (2)
    • Occipital bone (1)
    • Temporal bone (2)
    • Sphenoid bone (1)
    • Ethmoid (1)
  60. Superior Orbital Fissure
    • Oculomotor never (CN III) 
    • Trigeminal nerve (CN V 1 - Ophthalmic branch). Face sensation.
    • Abducens nerve (CN VI)
    • Ophthlamic vein
  61. Inferior Orbital Fissure
    Trigeminal nerve (CN V2 - Maxillary branch)
  62. Foramen Rotundum
    Sphenoid bone. Trigeminal nerve (CN V2 - Maxillary branch)
  63. Foramen Ovale
    Sphenoid bone. Trigeminal nerve (CN V3 - Mandibular branch)
  64. Foramen Spinosum
    Sphenoid bone. Middle meningeal artery.
  65. Foramen Magnum
    • Occipital bone. Acessory nerve (CN XI) - spinal portion.
    • Spinal cord. 
    • Vertebral arteries.
  66. Sella Turcica
    Sphenoid bone. Pituitary gland.
  67. Olfactory Foramina
    Ethmoid bone. Olfactory nerve (CN*I)
  68. Optic Canal
    Sphenoid bone. Optic nerve (CN II) & Ophthalmic artery.
  69. Temporal Bone
    • Squamous portion (lateral aspect)
    • Zygomatic process
    • External auditory canal
    • Mastoid process
    • Styloid process
    • Petrous portion (medial aspect)
  70. Sphenoid Bone
    • Greater wing (inferior)
    • Lesser wing (superior)
    • Optic canal
    • Superior orbital fissure
    • Sella turcica
    • Foramen rotundum & spinosum
    • Lateral &  Medial Pterygoid plate (process)
    • Body
  71. Ethmoid Bone
    • Crista galli
    • Cribiform plate
    • Perpendicular plate
    • Superior & middle nasal concha
    • Orbital plate
  72. How many cervical regions?
    7 cervical [C1-C7]
  73. How many thoracic regions?
    12 Thoracic [T1-T12]
  74. Vetebral Column
    • 7 Cervical C1-C7
    • 12 Thoracic T1-T12
    • 5 Lumbar L1-L5
    • 1 Sacrum 5 Fused
    • 1 Coccyx 4 to 5 fused
  75. Curvatures
    • Primary (thoracic & sacral/coccygeal) at birth.
    • Secondary (cervical & lumbar) seating, standing, and walking.
  76. Rib Cage
    • True ribs (vetebrosternal) #1-7
    • Flase ribs (articulates with cartilage of rib #7 #8-12
    • Floating ribs #11-12
    • Head, neck turbercle, angle, body, and sternal end.
  77. Carpal Bones (Wrist)
    • Proximal Row:
    • 1. Scaphoid
    • 2. Lunate
    • 3. Triquetrum
    • 4. Pisiform

    • Distal Row:
    • 1. Trapezium
    • 2. Trapezoid
    • 3. Capitate
    • 4. Hamate

    • Some Lovers Try Positions 
    • That They Can't Handle
  78. Plane or Gliding (Uniaxial)
    • Intervebral 
    • Vetebrae
  79. Hinge (Uniaxial)
    • Knee
    • Elbow
    • Ankle
  80. Ellipsoid joints (Biaxial)
    Ellipsoid joints are C1 and Occipital Atlanto-Occipital Joint. Modified ball-and-socket.
  81. Ball-and-socket (Multiaxial)
    • Shoulder
    • Hips
  82. Flexion
    Flexion of a body part results in the decrease of the angle at a joint.
  83. Extension
    Extension of a body part results in an increase of the angle at a joint.
  84. Abduction
    • Abduction is the movement of a body away from the midline. 
    • Abduction of the digits is movement of the digits away from the 3rd digit.
  85. Adduction
    • Adduction is the movement of a body part towards the midline.
    • Adductino of the digits is movement of the digits toward the 3rd digit.
  86. Opposition/Reposition
    • Opposition is moving the tips of digit 2-4 to the first digit. 
    • Reposition is moving the tips of digits 2-4 back from opposition.
  87. Depression/Elevation
    • Depression results in the movement of a body towards the inferior aspect of the body.
    • Elevation results in the movement of a body part towards the superior aspect of the body.
  88. Rotation
    Rotation is the movement of a body part along a particular fixed axis.
  89. Circumduction
    Circumduction is the rotation of an extremity in a circular motion fixed at a joint.
  90. Pronation/Supination
    • Pronation of the hand results in the palm facing the ground. 
    • Supination of the hand results in the palm facing the ceiling.
  91. Dorsiflexion/Plantar flexion
    • Dorsiflexion is pointing the toes towards ceiling.
    • Plantar flexion is pointing the toes toward the ground.
  92. Inversion/Eversion
    • Inversion is moving the sole of the foot towards the body.
    • Eversion is moving the sole of the foot away from the body.
  93. Osteoarthritis (OA)
    Wear and tear.
  94. Rheumatoid (RA)
    Caused by transient infection or autoimmune disease.
  95. Gouty Arthritis
    Caused by gout which cause pain and joint deformity.
  96. Atlas/C1
    C1 is unique, because is lacks a body and has 2 arches (anterior and posterior).
  97. Axis/C2
    The Axis or C2 contains an Odontoid process also know as the Dens (a tooth-like structure) that articulates with C1. The occipital condyle and C1 forms the atlanto-occipital joint.
  98. C3-C7 Cervical Vetebrae
    The rest of this region consists of the vertebrae C3-C7. Some shared characteristics amongst the vertebrae of this region are bifid spinous process and transverse foramina. C7 vertebrae articulates to T1 of the thoracic region.

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Author:
roadcrush
ID:
316712
Filename:
CHAPTERS 6-8
Updated:
2016-05-03 06:17:30
Tags:
Skeletal System Bone BoneTissues
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Description:
Anatomy/Physiology I
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