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Functions of the Skeletal System
- Support. Bone is hard and rigid; cartilage is flexible yet strong. Cartilage in nose, external ear, thoracic cage and trachea.
- Connect body parts. Ligaments - bone to bone.
- Protection. Skull around brain; ribs, sternum, vertebrae protect organs of thoracic cavity.
- Movement. Produced by muscles on bones, via tendons. Ligaments allow some movement between bones but prevent
- excessive movement.
- Storage. Ca2+ and Phosphorus. Stored then released as needed. Adipose tissue stored in marrow cavities.
- Blood cell production. Hemopoietic tissues formation of blood cells. Bone marrow (produces all three) that gives rise to blood cells (red = erythrocytes, white = leukocytes, and platelets = thrombocytes).
Components of the Skeletal System
- compact bone
- spongy (trabecular or cancellous) bone
- Hyaline cartilage
- Elastic cartilage
- attachment of muscle to bone
- attachment of bone to bone
Immature bone cell. Formation of bone through ossification or osteogenesis.
In which bones are formed. Formation of bone by osteoblasts.
Maintain the bone matrix. Mature bone cells.
- Destructive bone cell.
- Resorption of bone.
Which two (2) cells are involved in bone remodeling?
Osteoclast and Osteoblast
Vertebrae and facial bones.
Ribs, sternum, skull, and scapulae.
Carpals and tarsals bones.
Upper and lower limbs.
Structural Classification of Bone
- Long: Ex. Upper and lower limbs.
- Short: Ex. Carpals and tarsals.
- Flat: Ex. Ribs, sternum, skull, scapulae.
- Irregular: Ex. Vertebrae, facial.
Structure of Long Bone
- Dyaphysis: Shaft
- Epiphysis: End (tips) of the bone
- Epiphyseal plate: Growth plate. Present until growth stops.
- Epiphyseal line: Bone stops growing in length (former growth Epiphyseal plates become lines).
- Periosteum: Outer covering (membrane) of long bone.
- Medullary cavity: Center of dyaphysis is hallow cavity. It is lined with spongy bone known as Edosteum.
- Edosteum: Inner lining of the hallow (Medullary) cavity.
- Sharpey's Fibers: act as glue to attach the periosteum to the dyaphysis (bone).
Type of disease when you lack vitamin D if you are a child?
Type of disease when you lack vitamin D if you are an adult?
No dyaphysis or epiphysis
Short and Irregular Bone
No dyaphysis and not elongated.
- PTH (parathyroid hormone): is going to favor an increase in blood calcium level.
- Calcitonin: is going to favor a decrease in blood calcium level.
Bone healing (healing)
- 1. Hematoma
- 2. Callus formation
- 3. Callus ossification
- 4. Bone remodeling
Type of disease when you lack vitamin C?
Body [Terms of bones]
Main part of bone.
Head [Terms of bones]
Enlarged end. Bony protrusion carried on a neck.
Neck [Term of bones]
constriction between head and body
Margin or border [Term of bones]
Angle [Term of bones]
Ramus [Term of bones]
Arm-like bar of bone. Branch off body.
Condyle [Term of bones]
Smooth round articulating surface.
Facet [Term of bones]
Small articulating face. Small flattened articular surface.
Process [Bone projections]
Tubercle [Bone projections]
Small (rounded) bump.
Tuberosity [Bone projections]
Large bump (knob).
Trochanter [Bone projections]
Very large bump (on femur). Tuberosities on proximal femur.
Epicondyle [Bone projections]
near or above condyle
Fossa [Depressions in bone]
Shallow depression. General term for a depression.
Notch [Depressions in bone]
Depressed margin. Depression in bone margin.
Fovea [Depressions in bone]
Small or little pit.
Groove or sulcus [Depressions in bone]
Deep and narrow depression.
Line or linea [Ridges in bone]
A very low ridge.
Crest or crista [Ridges in bone]
Spine [Ridges in bone]
Very high ridge.
Foramen [Openings in bone]
Canal or meatus [Openings in bone]
Tunnel. Channel-like passage.
Fissure [Openings in bone]
Narrow slit-like opening. Cleft.
Foramen [Plural Forms]
Sulcus [Plural Forms]
Ramus [Plural Forms]
Fossa [Plural forms]
Sinus or labyrinth [Openings in bone]
Cavity in a bone.
- Bony Thorax:
- a. Sternum
- b. Rib cage (12 pairs)
- Carpal bones (8)
- Metacarpals (5)
- Phalanges (14)
- Tarsals (7)
- Metatarsals (5)
- Phalanges (14)
What are the three major foramina?
- Foramen Rotundum
- Foramen Spinosum
- Foramen Ovale
Lateral Wall [Nasal Cavity]
- Superior concha: belong to ethmoid bone.
- Middle concha: belong to ethmoid bone.
- Inferior concha: Does not belong to the ethmoid bone. A bone by iteself.
Nasal Septum [Nasal Cavity]
- Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
- Septal cartilage
- Parietal bone
- Temporal bone
- Parietal bones
- Occipital bone
Coronal (Frontal) Suture
- Frontal bone
- Parietal bones
- Inferior concha
- Frontal bone is also part of the facial bones.
- Frontal bone (1)
- Parietal bone (2)
- Occipital bone (1)
- Temporal bone (2)
- Sphenoid bone (1)
- Ethmoid (1)
Superior Orbital Fissure
- Oculomotor never (CN III)
- Trigeminal nerve (CN V 1 - Ophthalmic branch). Face sensation.
- Abducens nerve (CN VI)
- Ophthlamic vein
Inferior Orbital Fissure
Trigeminal nerve (CN V2 - Maxillary branch)
Sphenoid bone. Trigeminal nerve (CN V2 - Maxillary branch)
Sphenoid bone. Trigeminal nerve (CN V3 - Mandibular branch)
Sphenoid bone. Middle meningeal artery.
- Occipital bone. Acessory nerve (CN XI) - spinal portion.
- Spinal cord.
- Vertebral arteries.
Sphenoid bone. Pituitary gland.
Ethmoid bone. Olfactory nerve (CN*I)
Sphenoid bone. Optic nerve (CN II) & Ophthalmic artery.
- Squamous portion (lateral aspect)
- Zygomatic process
- External auditory canal
- Mastoid process
- Styloid process
- Petrous portion (medial aspect)
- Greater wing (inferior)
- Lesser wing (superior)
- Optic canal
- Superior orbital fissure
- Sella turcica
- Foramen rotundum & spinosum
- Lateral & Medial Pterygoid plate (process)
- Crista galli
- Cribiform plate
- Perpendicular plate
- Superior & middle nasal concha
- Orbital plate
How many cervical regions?
7 cervical [C1-C7]
How many thoracic regions?
12 Thoracic [T1-T12]
- 7 Cervical C1-C7
- 12 Thoracic T1-T12
- 5 Lumbar L1-L5
- 1 Sacrum 5 Fused
- 1 Coccyx 4 to 5 fused
- Primary (thoracic & sacral/coccygeal) at birth.
- Secondary (cervical & lumbar) seating, standing, and walking.
- True ribs (vetebrosternal) #1-7
- Flase ribs (articulates with cartilage of rib #7 #8-12
- Floating ribs #11-12
- Head, neck turbercle, angle, body, and sternal end.
Carpal Bones (Wrist)
- Proximal Row:
- 1. Scaphoid
- 2. Lunate
- 3. Triquetrum
- 4. Pisiform
- Distal Row:
- 1. Trapezium
- 2. Trapezoid
- 3. Capitate
- 4. Hamate
- Some Lovers Try Positions
- That They Can't Handle
Plane or Gliding (Uniaxial)
Ellipsoid joints (Biaxial)
Ellipsoid joints are C1 and Occipital Atlanto-Occipital Joint. Modified ball-and-socket.
Flexion of a body part results in the decrease of the angle at a joint.
Extension of a body part results in an increase of the angle at a joint.
- Abduction is the movement of a body away from the midline.
- Abduction of the digits is movement of the digits away from the 3rd digit.
- Adduction is the movement of a body part towards the midline.
- Adductino of the digits is movement of the digits toward the 3rd digit.
- Opposition is moving the tips of digit 2-4 to the first digit.
- Reposition is moving the tips of digits 2-4 back from opposition.
- Depression results in the movement of a body towards the inferior aspect of the body.
- Elevation results in the movement of a body part towards the superior aspect of the body.
Rotation is the movement of a body part along a particular fixed axis.
Circumduction is the rotation of an extremity in a circular motion fixed at a joint.
- Pronation of the hand results in the palm facing the ground.
- Supination of the hand results in the palm facing the ceiling.
- Dorsiflexion is pointing the toes towards ceiling.
- Plantar flexion is pointing the toes toward the ground.
- Inversion is moving the sole of the foot towards the body.
- Eversion is moving the sole of the foot away from the body.
Wear and tear.
Caused by transient infection or autoimmune disease.
Caused by gout which cause pain and joint deformity.
C1 is unique, because is lacks a body and has 2 arches (anterior and posterior).
The Axis or C2 contains an Odontoid process also know as the Dens (a tooth-like structure) that articulates with C1. The occipital condyle and C1 forms the atlanto-occipital joint.
C3-C7 Cervical Vetebrae
The rest of this region consists of the vertebrae C3-C7. Some shared characteristics amongst the vertebrae of this region are bifid spinous process and transverse foramina. C7 vertebrae articulates to T1 of the thoracic region.