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What are the 3 causes of folliculitis?
bacterial folliculitis (superficial pyoderma), demodicosis, dermatophytosis
What are the 3 canine demodectic mites?
Demodex canis, short-tailed mite (Demodex cornei), Demodex injai
Where does each of the following mites live on the body:
- D. canis- hair follicle and sebaceous glands
- D. cornei- surface
- D. injai- hair follicle and sebaceous glands
Do Demodex mites live in the environment?
no, their entire life cycle on the skin
If demodex is normally on the skin, why do some get generalized demodectic mange?
[not completely understood] possible role of mite-specific immunoincompetence, depressed T cell function, immunosuppressive factor from the mite
How is demodex usually transmitted?
from bitch to pup during nursing
What are the categories and sub-categories of disease associated with Demodex?
- Generalized: juvenile and adult-onset
Demodicosis is NOT __________ unless there is...
pruritic; secondary infection.
How/when does localized demodicosis usually present?
<1 year old (3-6 months), 90% spontaneously resolve in 4-8 weeks, focal areas of alopecia, scale, erythema, hyperpigmentation, lesions are periocular/perioral/forelimbs
Describe generalized demodicosis.
hereditary predisposition- dogs should not be bred if they have generalized demodicosis (their dam and sire should also be sterilized)
Clinical signs of generalized demodicosis. (8)
scaly alopecic patches, erythema, crusting, follicular plugging, comedones, hyperpigmentation, +/- greasy skin (D. injae), +/- pustular form
Describe the pustular form of generalized demodicosis. (12)
[life-threatening] gram-negative deep infection, alopecia, papules, pustules, draining tracts, cellulitis, ulcers, erosions, depressed, lethargic, lymphadenopathy
What are the 4 forms of generalized demodicosis?
squamous, greasy, pustular, pododemodicosis
What are potential triggers for adult-onset generalized demodicosis? (6)
glucocorticoids (most common), Cushing's, chemotherapy, hypothyriodism, neoplasia, idiopathic (if can't identify underlying cause)
What are the cut-offs for juvenile-onset demodicosis?
- <12 months old
- <18 months old in giant breeds
How do we diagnose demodicosis? (4)
deep skin scraping for follicular mites, superficial scrapes for surface mites (D. cornei), +/- hair plucks (not sensitive, neg doesn't rule out), +/- some cases may require biopsy
Describe the diagnosis of generalized demodicosis (as opposed to localized)?
- generalized if:
- entire body region affected
- one or more feet
- >5 localized lesions
What must you be sure to do during the course of diagnosis and treatment of demodicosis?
count mites and record sites, are mites alive or dead, life stages present- do this at every recheck to follow progression
Demodex is usually easy to find if you're doing your skin scrapes properly, UNLESS... (2)
fibrotic lesions, chinese shar-pei, OES, scottie [breeds....difficult to find mites]
When should you biopsy to confirm or rule out demodicosis? (2)
fibrotic lesions, [3 breeds] shar-pei/OES/scottie
What additional tests need to be run with adult-onset demodicosis? (4)
CBC/Chem, UA, thyroid test [additional tests may be warranted on a patient-to-patient basis]
How do you treat localized demodex? (2)
NONE- recheck every 2-3 weeks, +/- treat secondary pyoderma
What should you NEVER use when treating Demodex?
steroids (it is caused by immune suppression)
How do you treat generalized demodicosis? (5)
- stop glucocorticoids if applicable
- control secondary bacterial infections
- amitraz dips every 2 weeks w/ concurrent deep scrape; continue until 2 consecutive negative scrapes (done in hospital...potentially dangerous to people)
- Extra-label txts: ivermetin, milbemycin, dramectin, fluralaner, moxidectin/imidacloprid
What is the only form of generalized demodicosis in which you may not have to provide any treatment?
mild, squamous juvenile demodicosis
How do you perform an amitraz dip?
wear PPE, clip dog's hair, bathe for 15 min in benzoyl peroxide, soak for 15 min in amitraz, blow dry (DO NOT RINSE, DO NOT LET DOG GET WET)
When is a dog considered cured from generalized demodex?
1 year from date of last dip w/ a negative deep scrape [some are never cured, just controlled]
What should you do if a dog has a reaction after an amitraz dip?
RINSE THE DOG, administer Yohimbine
What should you do if amitraz dips aren't decreasing mite numbers?
extra-label: increased dip to every week or increase conc for 0.05%
What extra-label products are commonly used to treat demodicosis? (6)
Ivermectin, Milbemycin, large animal amitraz, doramectin, moxidectin/imidacloprid, fluralaner
In what animals should you NOT use ivermectin?
herding breeds of any type
What causes ivermectin sensitivity in Collies/etc?
P-glycoprotein mutation (transports ivermectin from brain back to peripheral circulation), which is a product of ABCB1 gene, which functions as a drug efflux pump
How do you use extra-label ivermectin to treat demodicosis?
LA ivomec given orally once a day (start low dose and increase), txt continued for 1-2 months after 2 negative consecutive deep skin scrapes
What 3 drugs should absolutely be avoided when using ivomec to treat demodicosis?
spinosad (comfortis), ketoconazole, cyclosporine
How is milbemycin used for demodex treatment?
same as ivomec
What are the 3 demodex mites of cats and where does each live on the body?
- Demodex cati- follicular mite
- Demodex gatoi- surface mite
- Unnamed species
Generalized demodicosis with D. cati has been associated with? (7)
DM, FeLV, FIV, hyperadrenocorticism, SLE, immunosuppressive drugs
What underlying diseases have been associated with D. gatoi? (3)
immunosuppressive drugs, DM, CAFR
Clinical signs of D. cati? (8)
chin/periorbital alopecia and scaling OR generalized with alopecia, scaling, papules, crusting, erythema, ceruminous otitis externa
What is unique about D. gatoi infection? (2)
How do you diagnose feline demodicosis? (3)
superficial and deep skin scrapes, rule out concurrent viruses
How do you treat feline demodicosis? (3)
localized is self-limiting, generalized should be dipped in lime sulfur weekly to 4-6 weeks; for D. gatoi, all in contact cats should also be treated