Kinesiology 151 (Exam1)

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  1. Bone Anatomy:

    Diaphysis
    • shaft/central part of a long bone
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  2. Bone Anatomy:

    Epiphysis
    • end part of long bone
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  3. Bone Anatomy:

    Epiphyseal Plate
    • (growth plate) hyaline cartilage in the end of a long bone; in children
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  4. Bone Anatomy:

    Apophysis
    protuberance from a bone; attachment of muscles
  5. Bone Anatomy:

    Apophyseal plate
    The fully matured Epiphyseal plate which no more growth is possible
  6. Bone Anatomy:

    Cortical
    The dense outer surface of the bone
  7. Bone Anatomy:

    Cancelli (trabecular)
    spongy; found in ends of long bones
  8. Bone Anatomy:

    Medullary cavity
    central cavity of bone shafts where red/yellow bone marrow is stored
  9. Bone Anatomy:

    Periosteum
    dense layer of vascular connective tissue; outer surface of bone
  10. Bone Anatomy:

    Endosteum
    Thin vascular membrane of connective tissue: forms medulla cavity
  11. Muscle Fiber architecture

    Parallel or Longitudinal (Strap/ Flat)
    • Endurance/ large ROM: long, flat, parallel
    • Sartorius, rectus abdominis, gracilis
  12. Muscle Fiber architecture

    Radiate/Fan
    • Strong single point power; varies b/w force and ROM
    • Deltoid (mid portion), pectoralis major, SITS, lats., lower trap.
  13. Muscle Fiber architecture

    Fusiform (spindle)
    • Large power; varies b/w force and ROM
    • Biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis
  14. Muscle Fiber architecture

    Pennate
    -Unipennate
    -Bipennate
    -Multipennate
    -Quadrate
    Pennate:pattern of short fibers at an angle to or perpendicular to longitudinal axis of muscle

    • Unipennate: short, one sided feather - extensor digitroum
    • Bipennate: short, two feather - rectus femoris
    • Multipennate: short, multi-sided feather - deltoid
    • Quadrates: short, angled fibers; more parallel fibers and more force- gluteus maximus

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  15. Classes of Joints

    Synarthrosis
    NOT movable
  16. Classes of Joints

    Amphiarthrosis
    • Slightly movable
    • Acromio-clavicular, sterno-clavicular, ilii-Sacral, pubic symphysis, rib-vertebral 
  17. Classes of Joints

    Diarthrosis
    freely movable
  18. Diarthrosis Joints (One plane, uniaxial)
    • Gliding: two (somewhat) flat surfaces glide over one another- Carpals, Tarsals
    • Hinge: open and close a joint (flexion and extension), one plane, uniaxial- Ankle (tibia, fibula, talus). knee (femur, tibia), elbow (ulna, humerus)
    • Pivot: pivot point of one bone w/in a “ring like” structure of another bone- true rotational movement; One plane, uniaxial - Atlas (C1), axis (C2). radial head and capitulum
  19. Diarthrosis Joints (Two planes, biaxial)
    • Ellipsoid: bone or set of bones in an ellipsoid cavity and may rock in many directions - Metacarpocarpal/metatarsotarsus, radioulnar-carpal,metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal
    • Saddle: bone or set of bones fit together like a rider in a saddle thumb-  (trapezium- #1 metacarpal), subtalar joint (talus and calcaneus) 
  20. Diarthrosis Joints (Three planes, triaxial)
    Ball and socket-  shoulder, hip
  21. Collagen
    • Long parallel fibers
    • Elastic
  22. Calcium
    • 60-70% of bone composition
    • Calcium phosphate and carbonate form crystals; crystals combine to make distinct new crystals to form bone
    • Compression strength; resist crushing
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    Planes of Motion
    • Sagittal: right and left side; bilateral axis
    • Frontal: anterior and posterior; anterio-posterior axis
    • Transverse: superior and inferior; vertical axis
  24. Agonist
    • (movement): concentric contraction creating a specific movement
    • Main movers, assister
  25. Antagonist
    • (resistance): eccentric contraction elongating at specific rate
    • Oppose agonist, coordinate the main movement
  26. Synergist
    (coordination and control): contraction of a muscle to another particular action of: another muscle, another part of muscle, co-contract concentrically to create new movement (mutual neutralizer)
  27. Stabilizer
    (stability): isometric contraction to steady/support a bone/joint against the pull of other muscles
  28. Relaxed
    (no force)
  29. Scapula Mover
    #1 Serratus anterior
    • O: lat. surface of 1-8 rib
    • I: anterior medial border of scapula
    • A: out/upward rotation w/ trap., protraction of scapula
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  30. Scapula Mover
    #2 Trapezius I
    • Mutual stabilizer- Functions as 4
    • O:
    • (I) base of skull, nucleal line, occipital protuberance
    • I: (I) posterior clavicle
    • A: (I) Elevation

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  31. Scapula Mover
    #2 Trapezius II-IV
    • O:
    • (II-IV) spinous processes C7-T12
    • I:
    • (II) acromion process,
    • (III) spine of scapula,
    • (IV) spine and medial border of scapula at base of spine
    • A:
    • (II) Elevation, out/upward rotation, adduction,
    • (III) adduction,
    • (IV) out/upward rotation, depression, adduction
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  32. Scapula Movers
    #3 Rhomboids
    • true adductors
    • Minor: superior, smaller
    • O: C7-T1 at lamina
    • I: Medial border at spine

    • Major: inferior, larger
    • O: T2-5 at lamina
    • I: Middle medial border to inferior angle
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  33. Scapula Mover
    #4 Levator scapula
    • True elevator
    • O:C1-4 transverse processes
    • I: Superior angle upper medial border of scapula
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  34. Scapula Mover
    #5 Pectoralis minor
    • stabilizer
    • O: rib 3-5
    • I: Coracoid process of scapula
    • A: Slight depression, stabilizer of scapula, up/outward rotation, abduction
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  35. Scapula Mover
    #6 Subclavius
    • Strong stabilizer
    • O: Superior surface of rib 1
    • I: Inferior ridge of clavicle
    • A: Stabilization
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  36. Humeral Movers
    #1 Pectoralis Major
    • strongest in sagittal plane
    • O: Anterior surface of sternum and anterior border of clavicle
    • I: Lateral lip of bicipital groove
    • A: Flexion, horizontal flexion (adduction), inward rotation, adduction, ext. when shoulder is in flexed position
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  37. Humeral Movers
    #2 Coracobrachialis
    • stabilizes shoulder
    • O: Coracoid process
    • I: Middle medial border of humerus
    • A: Horizontal flexion of humerus, slight flexion of humerus
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  38. Humeral Movers
    #3 Deltoid
    • Power, mutual neutralizer
    • O: (ant. middle, post.)
    •    Ant: Lateral anterior clavicle
    •    Middle: Lateral acromion process of scapula
    •    Post: Inferior spine of scapula
    • I: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
    • A: abduction
    •    Anterior-flexion: Horizontal flexion (adduction), inward rotation
    •    Posterior-ext.: Horizontal ext. (abduction), slight outward rotation
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  39. Humeral Movers
    #4 Latissimus dorsi
    • O: T7-L5, Spinous processess, posterior sacrum, iliac crest, ribs 10-12
    • I: Bicepital groove
    • A: Ext., adduction, inward rotation of humerus
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  40. Humeral Movers
    #5 Teres major
    • O: Inferior, medial border and inferior angle of scapula
    • I: Medial inferior lip of bicipital groove of humerus
    • A: Inward rotation, adduction, ext., stabilizer of humerus
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  41. Humeral Movers- Rotator Cuffs
    #6 Supraspinatus
    • O: Supraspinous fossa of scapula
    • I: Superior greater tubercle of humerus
    • A: Stabilizer, outward rotation, abduction upon isolation w/ deltoid of humerus
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  42. Humeral Movers- Rotator Cuffs
    #7 Infraspinatus
    • O: Infraspinous fossa of scapula
    • I: Middle greater tubercle of humerus
    • A: Stabilization, outward rotation, ext. and horizontal ext. (when isolated) of humerus
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  43. Humeral Movers- Rotator Cuffs
    #8 Teres minor
    • O: Lateral border of scapula
    • I: Lower greater tubercle
    • A: Stabilization, outward, ext. and horizontal ext. when isolated
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  44. Humeral Movers- Rotator Cuffs
    #9 Subscapularis
    • O: Subscapular fossa of scapula
    • I: Lesser tubercle of humerus
    • A: Stabilization, adduction, inward rotation, ext. of humerus when isolated
  45. Sarcomere
    • The segment of a myofibril between two adjacent Z bands, representing the functional unit of striated muscle. (The repeating subunits of a myofibril).
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  46. Motor Unit
    • A motor unit consists of a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers its branches innervate. Motor units function as a single unit. When a particular muscle contracts, the contraction actually occurs at the muscle fiber level within a particular motor unit. In a typical contraction, the number of motor units responding and consequently the number of muscle fibers contracting within the muscle may vary significantly, from relatively few to virtually all of the muscle fibers, depending on the number of muscle fibers within each activated motor unit and the number of motor units activated. Regardless of the number involved, the individual muscle fibers within a given motor unit will fire and contract either maximally or not at all (all or none principle).
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  47. kinesthetic sensory organs
    Golgi Tendon Organs
    • Sensitivity: Subconscious muscle sense, muscle tension changes.
    • Location: In tendons, near muscle-tendon junction in series with muscle fibers.
    • Response: Inhibit development of tension in stretched muscles. Initiate development of tension in antagonistic muscles.
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  48. kinesthetic sensory organs
    Muscle Spindle fibers
    • Sensitivity: Subconscious muscle sense, muscle length changes.                        
    • Location: In skeletal muscles among muscle fibers in parallel with fibers.
    • Response: Initiate rapid contraction of stretched muscle. Inhibit development of tension in antagonistic muscles.
  49. kinesthetic sensory organs
    Pacinian Corpuscles
    • Sensitivity: Rapid changes in joint angles, pressure, vibration.
    • Location: Subcutaneous, submucosa, and subserous tissues around joints and external genitals, mammary glands.
    • Response: Provide feedback regarding location of body part in space following quick movements.
  50. kinesthetic sensory organs
    Ruffini’s Endings (Corpuscles)
    • Sensitivity: Strong, sudden joint movements, touch, pressure.
    • Location: Skin and subcutaneous tissue of fingers, collagenous fibers of the joint capsule.
    • Response: Provide feedback regarding touch, two-point discrimination.
  51. kinesthetic sensory organs
    Labyrinthine
    • BALANCE & EQUILIBRIUM.
    • Complex sense concerned with the perception of bodily position and motion, mediated by end organs in the vestibular system and the semicircular canals, and stimulated by alterations in the pull of gravity and by head movements.
    • The labyrinth of the inner ear consists of the cochlea, the three semicircular canals, and the utricle and saccule. The cochlea is concerned with hearing but the rest of the labyrinth is is concerned with the sense of balance, or equilibrium. (More on HWL page 89).
  52. Humeral Scapular Rhythm (Scapulohumeral Rhythm)
    • The arm travels through a wide range of movements, and in each of these the scapula cooperates by placing the glenoid fossa in the most favorable position for the head of the humerus.
    • Ex.When the arm is elevated sideward (abducted), for instance, the scapula rotates upward; when it is elevated forward (flexed), the scapula not only rotates upward but it tends to slide partially around the rib cage (abducted). (HWL pg. 93).
  53. Muscle contraction types
    Extensibility and elasticity
    • The ability to relax and stretch; and to return to resting length.
    • Muscles will only PULL not push.
    • Both ends towards muscle center.
    • Tension toward center for shortening or lengthening.
    • Contracts to create tension NOT FLEX.
    • Tends to act across all joints that it crosses.
  54. Concentric
    Sarcomere shortens. (ex. biceps curl)
  55. Eccentric
    Sarcomere lengthens. (ex. Hamstrings lengthen to lower thigh in flexion)Image Upload
  56. Isometric
    • Sarcomere finds a length and remains at that that length with tension.
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  57. Isotonic
    constant rate of tension whether concentric or eccentric throughout range of motion.
  58. Isokinetic
    Maximal muscle tension throughout range of motion (weakest and strongest angle of pull accommodated).
  59. Shoulder Impingement
    • Occurs when the soft tissue structure superior to the head of the humerus is pressed against the acromion process.
    • This painful condition may be the result of overuse, a trapped or inflamed bursa, a sports-related injury, or degeneration due to age.
    • In the young these injuries are often ascribed to abduction pressure, whereas in the elderly bone spurs and joint degeneration are contributing factors. (HWL pg. 119).
  60. Passive vs. Active insufficiency
    Active- the inability to contract once a muscle is fully contracted

    • Passive- the inability to contract if the muscle is stretched out too far.
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Card Set Information

Author:
Kaionart
ID:
316922
Filename:
Kinesiology 151 (Exam1)
Updated:
2016-03-07 22:52:20
Tags:
kins151 exam1 kinesiology csus
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Kins151
Description:
Kins151 Exam 1
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