reasoning/processing

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  1. what is a continuous stream in humans
    thoughts
  2. thinking
    mental activity based on past learning/ experience
  3. circle of thought
    describes, elaborates, decides, plans, and guides our actions
  4. information-processing system
    • receives info, represents it with symbols, and manipulates those symbols
    • (encoding-storage-retrieval)
  5. thinking defined by information-processing system
    manipulation of representations as they proceed through the five core properties
  6. mental chronometry
    timing of mental events by focusing on reaction time
  7. reaction time
    time between stimuli and response to follow
  8. when does reaction time increase
    as complexity of the decision increases
  9. stimulus-response compatibility
    reaction time decreases as stimulus-response compatibility increases
  10. increased expectancy decreases______
    reaction time
  11. speed accuracy trade off
    quick answers lead to more mistakes
  12. evoked brain potential
    • EEG shows evoked brain potentials are small brief voltage changes during some mental events
    • ex: hearing ones name
  13. are cognitive processes instantaneous
    no the brain needs time to process info so task becomes more complex
  14. what happens to reaction time when they task has to be repeated
    the reaction time should decrease
  15. cognitive maps
    • mental representation of spatial lay out
    • visual experience is helpful but not needed
  16. people manipulate _______ as they would physically manipulate the objects themselves
    cognitive images
  17. concepts
    categories of objects, events, or ideas with common properties
  18. artificial concept
    items have clearly defined rules and specify the concepts boundaries
  19. natural concepts
    • (fuzzy concepts)
    • lacks fixed definition
    • concept acquired from everyday perceptions
  20. natural concepts
    concept member that has all or most concepts characteristic feature
  21. what are concepts represented by
    • schemas
    • they can be useful bc they allow us to take shortcuts in interpreting large amounts of information and unfortunately exclude important info that disagrees with pre-existing beliefs
  22. schemas=
    mental construct


    schemas help predict life, and create expectations about objects/events/people
  23. scripts
    schemas about sequence in which events occur
  24. proposition
    smallest unit of thought that stands alone as a separate idea
  25. mental model
    • form of schema 
    • cluster many propositions together to understand how things work
  26. inductive reasoning
    • specific to general
    • INFORMAL REASONING
    • can be false
    • no clear solution to problem
  27. deductive reasoning
    • formal reasoning
    • general to specific
    • logically correct
    • one clear precise answer
  28. algorithms
    • deductive reasoning
    • problem solving strategy that involves step by step procedure and guarantees a solution to certain probems
    • guides formal reasoning
  29. people are prone to make a number of errors in logical reasoning
    • bias about conclusion. illogical conclusions that agree with prior beliefs
    • experimenter bias/ confirmation bias
  30. conversion effect
    • occurs when you assume that premises are symmetrical
    • if a leads to b, b leads to a
  31. differences in logical reasoning can be due to
    cultural differences
  32. what shapes how logical formulations are expressed
    language differences
  33. heuristics
    • used to guide informal reasoning
    • mental shortcuts
    • doesn't guarantee a correct solution to a problem
  34. anchoring heuristics (effect)
    • one estimates an event likelihood by adjusting an earlier estimate
    • tendency to be influenced by a reference point
  35. representative heuristics
    • tendency to judge likelihood of things according to how they relate to a prototype
    • Ex: stereotypical model
    • iGNores base rate frequency- how often hypothesis actually occurs in real life
  36. availability heuristic
    • tendency to estimate probability of certain events in terms of how readily they com to mind
    • based on intuition
  37. decomposition
    break large problems into small problems
  38. working backwards
    begin working from end goal
  39. incubation
    put difficult problems aside to come back to later
  40. fixation
    inability to look at a problem from a different perspectives
  41. obstacles to problem solving
    • due to limited STM its hard to consider multiple hypothesis at once
    • correct hypothesis may be neglected if another is easier
  42. mental set
    • form of fixation
    • barriers to problem solving that occurs when we apply only methods that have worked in the past then trying new stuff
  43. functional fixedness
    when we cant recognize different uses for an object bc we are familiar with its common use
  44. framing
    way an issue is stated, how an issue is framed can affect decisions
  45. experts
    • can relate info from past and knowledge
    • downfall is functional fixedness and mental sets/ biases occur
  46. artificial intelligence
    field where computers are designed to stimulate human cognitive ability
  47. neural network (parallel processing model)
    emphasizes simultaneous processing of info
  48. neural network computer
    based on neuron like system where they can adapt to new situations and eal with imprecise and incomplete info
  49. Multiattribute decision making
    weighing pros and cons
  50. utility
    Personal value of attribute
  51. uncertanty in decision making requires you to
    Accurately estimate probabilities of various outcomes
  52. confimation bias
    Tendency to use info that supports our ideas and ignore info that refutes it
  53. belief preservance
    hold onto a belief after it's been discredited
  54. belief bias
    Preexisting beliefs to distort logical thinking
  55. hindsight bias
    Falsely report that you knew it would happen before it did
  56. over confidence bias
    Underestimate to the extent our judgements are wrong
  57. divergent thinking
    thinking that produces many alternative or ideas
  58. convergent thinking
    Thinking directed toward a single correct solution
  59. phonemes
    • Smallest unit of sound in spoken language
    • es: sh
  60. morpheme
    • Smallest unit of language that has meaning 
    • ex: ing
  61. semantics in language
    rules governing and meaning of words and sentences
  62. surface structure
    Actual word string that one happens to use
  63. Deep structure
    Basic meaning conveyed by the surface structure
  64. producing language and understanding it  are
    Different cognitive acts
  65. why do you people use top-down processing in language
    To perceive pauses between words
  66. at what phase can infants use holoprhrase
    • One year
    • one word which has meaning
  67. two years old how well can babies talk
    They can use two word sentences known as telegraphic speech
  68. Buy a child's third birthday what can they do
    Follow the rules of grammar
  69. Overgeneralization or over regularization
    Application of grammatical rules without making appropriate exceptions
  70. By age 5 how well can children talk
    Children have acquired most of their native languages syntax
  71. noam Chomsky
    • Nativist
    • are use that human brains have an inmate language acquisition device LAZ
    • overgeneralization is evidence that shows children generate all sorts of sentences they have never heard
  72. what is the critical period for language development
    children must be exposed to language by puberty
  73. BF Skinner
    • Behavioralist
    • Believe children learn language by association reinforcement And imitation
    • operant conditioning a positive reinforcement
  74. what did BF Skinner State
    Babies mimic phonemes around them and get reinforced for it this is called shaping which is done by parents over the child's first year
  75. Who is right BF Skinner or Noam Chomsky
    They are both right

Card Set Information

Author:
kimkrak
ID:
316975
Filename:
reasoning/processing
Updated:
2016-03-08 00:40:00
Tags:
psychology
Folders:

Description:
lesson 68-74
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