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  1. Encephalitis
    • inflammation of the brain tissue and surrounding meninges. it affects cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum
    • can result in permanant neuro damage
  2. Encephalitis causative organisms and mode of transmission
    • common cause is viral
    • mosquitos
    • get vaccine for measels and mumps
  3. the Patho of encephalitis
    • travels to the CNS via the bloodstream
    • invades the brain tissue
    • inflammation thru the brain and spinal cord
    • degeneration of neurons in cortex- loss of nerves
    • demyelination- not able to send signal
    • edema, hemorrhage, necrosis, and small hoolow cavities- loss of brain tissue
    • widespread edema- blood vessel
    • compression- incr icp
    • herniation and death- worst cause
  4. acute symptoms of encephalitis
    • high fever
    • stiff neck
    • H/a, n/v
    • chx in mental status
    • nuchal rigidity- painful stiff neck
    • motor dysfunction
    • focal neurological deficits-isolated problem like speaking/swallowing
    • photophobia & phonophobia
    • fatigue
    • cranial nerve invol- eye
    • seizure
    • lethargy, stuporpus, coma- incr icp
    • cerebral edema, brain necrosis- swelling
  5. assessment and dx findings
    • history and PE
    • lumbar puncture (CSF)
    • MRI scan- first
    • polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- viral DNA in CSF- (blood culture wont show viral)
    • EEG- brain activity- hyperstimulation, seizure activity
  6. What are the nursing management and interventions for this patient
    • priorities
    • safety, airway, meds etc
    • support-
    • pt education- vaccines
  7. what are the nursing management and interventions for this patient?
    • assess VS and neuro status
    • maintain airway- prevent aspiration, pneumonia
    • interventions to prevent c/o- turn pt, HOB up
    • cooliing blankets, tylenol- temp
    • dark room, limit noise and visitors- decr sensory stim
    • collab w/other healthcare team
    • monitor labs results
    • monitor fluid intake, IVF and urinary output
    • maintain safety/seizure precautions
    • avoid opiates bc of cns
    • IV acycloviar and IV steriods- synergistics
  8. S/s of ICP
    dec HR, irreg RR, wide pulse pressure, chx of pupils, chx in mental status- confused, slurred words
  9. meds used for this pt
    • acyclovir (zovirax), antiviral, Herpes
    • - DOC
    • - best if administered early in dx, improves prognosis
    • anti seizure medication
    • take antiviral for3 weeks IV then PO
    • admin slowly on pump
    • renal complication- check BUN/Cr
  10. what are the resources for pt
    • coping for the patient/family
    • educate family
    • provision of community resources
    • rehab long term care
  11. discharge teaching
    • prevention is key (arbovirus)
    • clothing
    • insect repellent (DEET)
    • limit time outside at dawn and dusk
    • house hold screens, remove standing water
Card Set:
2016-03-09 01:11:43

neurological in nursing
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