Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1

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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1
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2010-10-02 19:05:20
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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1
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  1. anatomy
    the study of structure/form
  2. physiology
    the study of function
  3. inspection
    simply looking at the body's appearance - physical exam or making a clinical diagnosis from surface appearance
  4. palpation
    feeling a structure with the hands
  5. auscultation
    listening to the natural sounds made by the body
  6. percussion
    the examiner taps on the body, feels for abnormal resistance, and listens to the emitted sound for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of fluid or air
  7. dissection
    the careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships
  8. cadaver
    a dead human body
  9. comparative anatomy
    the study of more than one species in order to examine structural similiarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends
  10. exploratory surgery
    opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it
  11. medical imaging
    methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery
  12. radiology
    branch of medicine concerned with imaging
  13. gross anatomy
    structure than can be seen with the naked eye-whether by surface observation, radiology or dissection
  14. histology (microscopic anatomy)
    take tissue specimens, thinly slice and stain them, and observe them under the microscope
  15. histopathology
    microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease
  16. cytology
    the study of the structure and function of individual cells
  17. ultrastructure
    refers to fine detail, down to the molecular level, revealed by the electron microscope
  18. neurophysiology
    physiology of the nervous system
  19. endocrinology
    physiology of hormones
  20. pathophysiology
    mechanisms of disease
  21. comparative physiology
    the study of how different species have solved problems of life such as water balance, respiration, and reproduction
  22. Hippocrates
    "father of medicine," Greek physician, he and his followers established a code of ethics for physicians, the Hippocratic Oath, that is still recited in modern form by many graduating medical students
  23. Aristotle
    one of the first philosophers to write about anatomy and physiology
  24. William Harvey
    remembered for his studies of blood circulation
  25. Michael Servetus
    and William Harvey were the first Western scientists to realize that blood must circulate continuously around the body, from the heart to the other organs and back to the heart again
  26. Robert Hooke
    an Englishman, designed scientific instruments of various kinds and made many improvements in the compound microscope
  27. Antony van Leeuwenhoek
    a Dutch textile merchant, invented a simple microscope, originally for the purpose of examining the weave of fabrics
  28. Carl Zeiss & Ernst Abbe
    greatly improved the compound microscope, adding the condensor and developing superior optics
  29. Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwann
    concluded that all organisms were composed of cells
  30. scientific method
    refers to less observational procedures than to certain habits of disciplined creativity, careful observation, logical thinking, and honest analysis of one's observations and conclusions
  31. inductive method
    process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them
  32. hypothesis
    an educated speculation or possible answer to the question
  33. A good hypothesis must be:
    • 1. consistent with what is already known
    • 2. capable of being tested and possibly falsified by evidence
  34. falsifiability
    means that if we claim something is scientifically true we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong. if nothing can possibly prove it wrong, then it is not scientific.
  35. sample size
    the number of subjects (animals or people) used in a study
  36. psychosomatic effects
    effects on the subjects state of mind on his or her physiology
  37. placebo
    a substance with no significant physiological effect on the body
  38. double-blind method
    neither the subject to whom a treatment is given nor the person giving it and recording the results knows whether that subject is recieving the experimental treatment or placebo
  39. peer review
    a critical evaluation by other experts in the field
  40. fact
    information that can be independently verified by any trained person
  41. law of nature
    a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave
  42. theory
    an explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypotheses
  43. evolution
    change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms
  44. natural selection
    principal theory of how evolution works
  45. selection pressures
    natural forces (climate, predators, disease, competition and the availability of food) that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others
  46. adaptions
    features of an organisms anatomy, physiology, and behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enables the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment
  47. bipedalism
    standing and walking on two legs
  48. The Hierarchy of Complexity
    • atom
    • molecule
    • organelle
    • cell
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • organism
  49. organism
    single, complete individual
  50. organ system
    a group of organs with a unique collective function
  51. organ
    a structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
  52. tissue
    a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function
  53. cells
    the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life; nothing simpler than a cell is considered alive
  54. organelles
    microscopic structures of a cell that carry out its individual functions
  55. molecules
    a particle that is composed of at least two atoms
  56. atom
    the smallest particles with unique chemical identities
  57. reductionism
    the theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components
  58. holism
    the complementary theory that there are "emergent properties" of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of its seperate parts - human beings are more than the sum of their parts
  59. Characteristics of Life
    • organization
    • cellular composition
    • metabolism
    • responsiveness and movement
    • homeostasis
    • development
    • reproduction
    • evolution
  60. metabolism
    the sum of all this internal chemical change
  61. anabolism
    relatively complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones
  62. catabolism
    relatively complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones
  63. excretion
    the separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination from the body
  64. stimuli
    changes in their environment
  65. homeostasis
    ability to maintain internal stability; the bodys ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it
  66. development
    any change in a form or function over the lifetime of the organism
  67. differentiation
    the transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task
  68. growth
    increase in size
  69. reproduction
    produce copies of themselves
  70. mutations
    change in DNA structure
  71. Claude Bernard
    observed that the internal conditions of the body remain quite constant even when external conditions vary greatly
  72. dynamic equilibrium
    balanced change
  73. set point
    average value
  74. negative feedback
    a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it
  75. vasodilation
    the widening of blood vessels
  76. vasoconstriction
    a narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin which serves to retain warm blood deeper in your body and reduce heat loss
  77. receptor
    a structure that senses a change in the body
  78. integrating (control) center
    a mechanism that processes this information, relates it to other available information, and "makes a decision" about what the appropriate response should be
  79. effector
    the cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action
  80. positive feedback
    a self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction, rather than producing the corrective effects of negative feedback

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