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Name the 3 principal grapes of Champagne in the Middle Ages?
From 9th to 16th century, Gouais Blanc, Gouais Noir, Fromenteau
Was Gouais Blanc used widely in champagne production?
- Mostly used for wine for personal consumption
- Planting increased during phylloxera outbreak due to its high yield/high vigor
Name 2 synonyms for Gouais Blanc
Name a synonym for Fromenteau
What grape crafted vins de la riviere?
Fromenteau (Pinot Gris)
What grape crafted vins de la montagne?
When did Pinot Noir arrive in Champagne?
Name 3 synomyms for Pinot Noir
- Morillon Noir
- Bon Noir
Name 2 categories of Pinot Noir grown in Champagne by 1900
- plants dores: "bronzed vines"
- plants gris: "gray vines"
Name specific plant dores
- Petit Plant Dore (aka Petit Plant Dore d'Ay)
- Demi Plant Noir (grown in Epernay) - replaced by Gros Plant Dore Noir d'Ay
- Rouge Dore (grown in Montagne de Reims) - replaced by Vert Dore
Name specific plant gris
- Petit Plant Gris
- Gros Plant Gris
Name some Pinot Noir clones not considered plants dores or plants gris
- Montagne de Reims: Plant d'Ecueil, Plant de Trepail, Plant de Vertus
- Aube: Pinot Noir Fin, Pineau Rouge, Pineau Franc/Gamery
Pronounce Ecueil, Trepail, Vertus, Weisser Heunisch, Meslier
- Ecueil: A-Coy-Ya
- Trepail: Tre-Pie
- Vertus: Ver-2
- Weisser Heunisch: Vie-sir Un-eesh
- Meslier: Mell-Yey
Why is Gouais Blanc thought to have originated in northest France/southwest Germany?
Many Gouais crosses there
Name some Gouais crosses
- Petite Meslier
- Gamay Blanc
- Gamay Noir
- Folle Blanche
Name the white grapes of Champagne by 1900
- Gouais Blanc
- Beaunois (Chardonnay)
- Pinot/Morillon (blanc) offshoots (1/3 grapes used for champagne; concentrated in the Cote des Blancs)
Name some lesser white grapes
- Gros Plant
- Gouais Blanc variations
- Gamay/Gamet Blanc
- Plant Verdilasse
- Languedoc Blanc
- Peurion (aka Peurichon, Milleron, Troyen Blanc)
Translate Morillon to English
Name a synonym for Chardonnay
Name some Pinot/Morillon (blanc) offshoots
- Petit Blanc
- Blanc Dore
- Gros Blanc
- Bon Blanc
Name 2 non-Pinot related white grapes
- Petit Meslier
- Chasselas Dur
Name synonyms for Chasselas Dur in the Aube
- Chasselas Blanc
- and incorrectly Muscat Blanc
Name a synonym for Pinot Meunier
How did Pinot Meunier carve a niche for itself?
Hardiness and consistent yields
Describe characteristics of Pinot Noir
- Early budding (susceptible to spring frost)
- Early ripening (harvested before autumn rain)
- Thrives in cool climates
- Prefers limestone or marl soils
Describe characteristics of Pinot Meunier
- Buds after Pinot Noir (and is frost resistant)
- Harvested before Pinot Noir
- Happy on all soils
- Mutation of Pinot Noir indigenous to France
Describe characteristics of Chardonnay
- Early budding
- Early ripening
- Prefers limestone or limestone rich marls
- Pinot x Gouais indigenous to France
Describe the relative acid and alcohol from each champange grape
- Chardonnay: high acid, high alcohol
- Pinot Noir: low acid, medium alcohol
- Pinot Meunier: medium acid, low alcohol
Describe the aromas of each champagne grape
- Chardonnay: apple and citrus
- Pinot Noir: cherry and strawberry
- Pinot Meunier: earthy, like pumpernickel or rye bread
Name the black grapes of Champagne by 1900
- Pinot Noir(s)
- Gouais Noir
- Teinturier (Noiraut/Alicante)
- Enfume Noir
- Chasselas Rouge (Muscat Rouge)
- Francois Noir, Troyen Noir, Bachet, Beaunoir
What is the difference between Beuanoir and Beaunois grapes?
- Beaunois is a white grape (Chardonnay)
- Beaunoir is a black grape
When were Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meeunier planted in Champagne?
- After WWI
- They exhibited excellent sugar/acid balance, subtle flavors, and delicate effervescence
In terms of vineyard acreage, how much of each grape is planted today?
- Pinot Noir: 38%
- Pinot Meunier: 34%
- Chardonnay: 28%
May Arbanne/Arbane, Pinot Blanc, and Petit Meslier be included in champagne today?
- Yes but uncommon
- Arbanne: widely planted during 1800s but succumbed to mildews; flowery boughet too dominant
- Petit Meslier: early budding (frost threat), inconsitent ripener (unwanted sour green character)
Name the 3 rootstocks of Champagne
- 41B: 81% grafts;, affinity for chalky soils
- SO4: prefers soils with limestone
- 3309C: prefers soils without limestone
How many clones has the CIVC recommended?
- About 50
- Chosen for higher acid
- Chosen for resistance to Botrytis/Grey Rot
- PN clones chosen for bigger berries (more juice)
- PM clones chosen for bigger berries and later bud break
Name some CIVC recommended clones
- Pinot Noir: 115, 779, 927
- Pinot Meunier: 977, 900, 817
- Chardonnay: 76, 75, 95
What was a driving factor in cultivar selection during the 1970s?
Whan did the Champenois start to use pesticides instead of the plow?
- Without the plow vines developed shallow roots and depleted the nutrients so they also need fertilizer
Name 2 effects of plowing
- Limited yields by disturbing rootstocks
- Forced roots to grow deep
- Why have many producers opted to forego the recommended (generaously yielding) clones and rely on selection massale?
- Difficult to achieve quality crop
- Must balance pruning, cover crops, fertilizing, and preciptation
Why is selection massale not necessarily best?
- Best of what is available in microcosm, not macrocosm
- Healthier clones can product good quality at higher volume
Development of berries