Champagne Grapes

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  1. Name the 3 principal grapes of Champagne in the Middle Ages?
    From 9th to 16th century, Gouais Blanc, Gouais Noir, Fromenteau
  2. Was Gouais Blanc used widely in champagne production?
    • No
    • Mostly used for wine for personal consumption
    • Planting increased during phylloxera outbreak due to its high yield/high vigor
  3. Name 2 synonyms for Gouais Blanc
    • Weisser Heunisch
    • Marmot
  4. Name a synonym for Fromenteau
    Pinot Gris
  5. What grape crafted vins de la riviere?
    Fromenteau (Pinot Gris)
  6. What grape crafted vins de la montagne?
    Gouais Noir
  7. When did Pinot Noir arrive in Champagne?
  8. Name 3 synomyms for Pinot Noir
    • Morillon Noir
    • Norien
    • Bon Noir
  9. Name 2 categories of Pinot Noir grown in Champagne by 1900
    • plants dores: "bronzed vines"
    • plants gris: "gray vines"
  10. Name specific plant dores
    • Petit Plant Dore (aka Petit Plant Dore d'Ay)
    • Demi Plant Noir (grown in Epernay) - replaced by Gros Plant Dore Noir d'Ay
    • Rouge Dore (grown in Montagne de Reims) - replaced by Vert Dore
  11. Name specific plant gris
    • Petit Plant Gris
    • Gros Plant Gris
  12. Name some Pinot Noir clones not considered plants dores or plants gris
    • Montagne de Reims: Plant d'Ecueil, Plant de Trepail, Plant de Vertus
    • Aube: Pinot Noir Fin, Pineau Rouge, Pineau Franc/Gamery
  13. Pronounce Ecueil, Trepail, Vertus, Weisser Heunisch, Meslier
    • Ecueil: A-Coy-Ya
    • Trepail: Tre-Pie
    • Vertus: Ver-2
    • Weisser Heunisch: Vie-sir Un-eesh
    • Meslier: Mell-Yey
  14. Why is Gouais Blanc thought to have originated in northest France/southwest Germany?
    Many Gouais crosses there
  15. Name some Gouais crosses
    • Chardonnay
    • Riesling
    • Aligote
    • Arbois
    • Auxerrois
    • Petite Meslier
    • Melon
    • Sacy
    • Romorantin
    • Gamay Blanc
    • Gamay Noir
    • Colombard
    • Furmint
    • Elbling
    • Folle Blanche
    • Jacquere
  16. Name the white grapes of Champagne by 1900
    • Gouais Blanc
    • Beaunois (Chardonnay)
    • Pinot/Morillon (blanc) offshoots (1/3 grapes used for champagne; concentrated in the Cote des Blancs)
  17. Name some lesser white grapes
    • Gros Plant
    • Gouais Blanc variations
    • Gamay/Gamet Blanc
    • Plant Verdilasse
    • Languedoc Blanc
    • Peurion (aka Peurichon, Milleron, Troyen Blanc)
  18. Translate Morillon to English
  19. Name a synonym for Chardonnay
  20. Name some Pinot/Morillon (blanc) offshoots
    • Petit Blanc
    • Blanc Dore
    • Gros Blanc
    • Epinette
    • Bon Blanc
    • Bargeois
    • Arboisier
  21. Name 2 non-Pinot related white grapes
    • Petit Meslier
    • Chasselas Dur
  22. Name synonyms for Chasselas Dur in the Aube
    • Chasselas Blanc
    • Bar-sur-Aube
    • Vert-Blanc
    • and incorrectly Muscat Blanc
  23. Name a synonym for Pinot Meunier
    Morillon Taconne
  24. How did Pinot Meunier carve a niche for itself?
    Hardiness and consistent yields
  25. Describe characteristics of Pinot Noir
    • Early budding (susceptible to spring frost)
    • Early ripening (harvested before autumn rain)
    • Thrives in cool climates
    • Prefers limestone or marl soils
  26. Describe characteristics of Pinot Meunier
    • Buds after Pinot Noir (and is frost resistant)
    • Harvested before Pinot Noir
    • Happy on all soils
    • Mutation of Pinot Noir indigenous to France
  27. Describe characteristics of Chardonnay
    • Early budding
    • Early ripening
    • Prefers limestone or limestone rich marls
    • Pinot x Gouais indigenous to France
  28. Describe the relative acid and alcohol from each champange grape
    • Chardonnay: high acid, high alcohol
    • Pinot Noir: low acid, medium alcohol
    • Pinot Meunier: medium acid, low alcohol
  29. Describe the aromas of each champagne grape
    • Chardonnay: apple and citrus
    • Pinot Noir: cherry and strawberry
    • Pinot Meunier: earthy, like pumpernickel or rye bread
  30. Name the black grapes of Champagne by 1900
    • Pinot Noir(s)
    • Meunier
    • Gouais Noir
    • Teinturier (Noiraut/Alicante)
    • Enfume Noir
    • Chasselas Rouge (Muscat Rouge)
    • Gamay/Gamet
    • Francois Noir, Troyen Noir, Bachet, Beaunoir
  31. What is the difference between Beuanoir and Beaunois grapes?
    • Beaunois is a white grape (Chardonnay)
    • Beaunoir is a black grape
  32. When were Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meeunier planted in Champagne?
    • After WWI
    • They exhibited excellent sugar/acid balance, subtle flavors, and delicate effervescence
  33. In terms of vineyard acreage, how much of each grape is planted today?
    • Pinot Noir: 38%
    • Pinot Meunier: 34%
    • Chardonnay: 28%
  34. May Arbanne/Arbane, Pinot Blanc, and Petit Meslier be included in champagne today?
    • Yes but uncommon
    • Arbanne: widely planted during 1800s but succumbed to mildews; flowery boughet too dominant
    • Petit Meslier: early budding (frost threat), inconsitent ripener (unwanted sour green character)
  35. Name the 3 rootstocks of Champagne
    • 41B: 81% grafts;, affinity for chalky soils
    • SO4: prefers soils with limestone
    • 3309C: prefers soils without limestone
  36. How many clones has the CIVC recommended?
    • About 50
    • Chosen for higher acid
    • Chosen for resistance to Botrytis/Grey Rot
    • PN clones chosen for bigger berries (more juice)
    • PM clones chosen for bigger berries and later bud break
  37. Name some CIVC recommended clones
    • Pinot Noir: 115, 779, 927
    • Pinot Meunier: 977, 900, 817
    • Chardonnay: 76, 75, 95
  38. What was a driving factor in cultivar selection during the 1970s?
    Reliable production
  39. Whan did the Champenois start to use pesticides instead of the plow?
    • 1970s
    • Without the plow vines developed shallow roots and depleted the nutrients so they also need fertilizer
  40. Name 2 effects of plowing
    • Limited yields by disturbing rootstocks
    • Forced roots to grow deep

    • Why have many producers opted to forego the recommended (generaously yielding) clones and rely on selection massale?
    • Difficult to achieve quality crop
    • Must balance pruning, cover crops, fertilizing, and preciptation
  41. Why is selection massale not necessarily best?
    • Best of what is available in microcosm, not macrocosm
    • Healthier clones can product good quality at higher volume
  42. Define nouaison
    Development of berries

Card Set Information

Champagne Grapes
2016-03-13 19:05:22

Wine Scholar Guild Champagne Master Level Study Manual
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