Soc 1101 General Terms Prelim 1

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  1. What is sociology?
    • The study of human social life, groups, and societies
    • questions things you previously took for granted and applies analytical tools to the ordinary
  2. The Sociological Perspective
    • away from individualistic explanations and toward group-level and social explanations
    • search for general patterns of behavior in particular individuals and be systematic in explaining the social influences of these patterns
  3. Social facts
    external factors that affect human behaviors, not on an individual elvel
  4. Social theory
    analytical frameworks or paradigms used to examine social phenomena
  5. Social structure
    is the system of socioeconomic stratification (e.g., the class structure), social institutions, or other patterned relations between large social groups
  6. Social cohesion
    being aligned with your society, following norms
  7. Social context
    immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact
  8. Argument by elimination
    • systematic rejection of alternative explanations to bolster remaining candidate explanations
    • attacks competing hypotheses to "prove" his theory
  9. Social context
    How does the environment affect an individual's outcomes? We "attach" the characteristic of the social environment to the individual to investigate the effect
  10. Systematic method
    • rule-governed process that restrains the proclivity of the researcher
    • transparent to reader/consumer
  11. Quantitative methods
    • Seek to convert information about the social world into numeric form, using statistics to analyze these data
    • Breadth, generalizability
    • Examples: census, health records, surveys
  12. Qualitative methods
    • Seek to collect information about the social world that cannot readily be converted into numeric form
    • Using interviews, ethnography (observations, participant observations)
  13. Mixed Methods
    • Combining qualitative and quantitative techniques
    • Better access complicated realitiesl
  14. Strengths/Weaknesses of Fieldwork
    • Strength: get as close to the primary source as possible, rich and in-depth information, broad understanding of social processes
    • Weaknesses: might put researcher in uncomfortable position, presence of observer might change behavior of what's going on in that situation, personal bias, very labor intensive w/ a small sample size so not easily generalizable
  15. Strengths/Weaknesses of Surveys
    • Strengths: can reach more people, more efficient, ask more questions, broader range of information, might get more honest responses especially if anonymous, precise comparisons between respondents
    • Weaknesses: framing questions to specific answers, one might not understand a question on surveys, might get a biased response from the group of people that take the survey
    • Superficial information
  16. Strengths/Weaknesses of Experiments
    • Strengths: more control over research design and subjects, can see causality, not just correlation, replicable
    • Weaknesses: unethical topics to experiment on people
  17. Strengths/Weaknesses of Documents
    • Strengths: in-depth and generalizable if done well, allows for historical analyses
    • Weaknesses: dependent on sources that exist
  18. Causation vs. Correlation
    • Causation: one event brings about another event, there are many causes for every effect
    • Correlation: two events are related
  19. Ideal Research Process
    • Define the problem
    • Review the literature
    • Form hypotheses
    • Research design
    • Collect data
    • Analyze data
    • Interpret results
    • Report findings/disseminate
  20. Components of inequality
    • Institutional processes
    • What are the rules of who gets that reward?
    • What're the processes through which you can change your position in society?
  21. Types of goods that people want
    • Money/wealth/ownership of property
    • Social prestige/power
    • Leisure/happiness
    • Autonomy, like management
    • Social networks, exclusive groups
    • Cultural power like knowledge or attending elite institutions
    • Civil rewards like voting and due process
    • Human capital like education and job training
    • Physical capital like mental/physical health
  22. Types of goods (capital)
    Economic, social, power, cultural, civil, human, physical, honorific
  23. Functional Perspective
    • by Davis and Moore
    • inequality and the purpose it serves in society
  24. Conflict Perspective
    • by Tumin
    • Inequality is a struggle between groups competing for scarce resources
  25. Social class
    • every conception: occupation, money made, where you live
    • Politics as a window: politicians speak to "middle class" and talk ab out "top 1%"
    • Sociologist: economically-based hierarchy characterized by conflict between groups, and some degree of mobility
  26. Concerted cultivation
    • middle class
    • parents develop child's skills by involving kids in organized events and using reasoning, everything's a negotiation
    • Downside: creates a hectic environment
  27. Accomplishment of natural growth
    • working class
    • more independent children, parents keep kids safe, provide food, clothing, shelter, doesn't direct them
    • children taught to just listen and not challenge authority
    • difference in interaction w/ kids because they hang out with family/cousins more, kids of different ages
  28. Consequences of Concerted Cultivation and Accomplishment of Natural Growth
    • race didn't matter as much as class, although it mattered a little
    • kids act differently in school based on how they're raised, so they may be evaluated differently
    • language development: middle class can negotiate and ask for what they need
    • "Social" consequences: middle class families are much busier and stressed out, working class kids don't know what to do w/ free time
  29. Marxist concept of social class vs. modern concept
    • Marxist - relationship to labor and ownership of capital
    • Modern - income, education, and occupation
  30. Definition of race
    a social invention that changes as political, economic, and historical contexts change
  31. Why study race/ethnicity?
    • Sociologists: axis of social difference, determinant of inequality, consequential feature of US social structure
    • Government: policy decisions, esp. for civil rights and equal employment, allocation of federal funding, legislative redistricting
  32. Stereotype threat
    threat of being viewed through the lens of a negative stereotype or the fear of doing something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype
  33. Sociological aspect of stereotype threat?
    • Stereotypes are socially constructed, coming from external factors
    • Stereotypes are social facts b/c they are external and situational
  34. Difference between sex and gender
    sex is biological, gender is socially constructed in which we create norms for different genders
  35. What is a role?
    • situated identities, identities taken up depending on a situation like a doctor or professor
    • note: gender is not a role
  36. Gender accountability
    • people are responsible for upholding a performance that meets normative conceptions of their sex
    • serves to legitimate or discredit someone's claim as a man or a woman
  37. How to learn male/female?
    • Media - expectations like boys playing w/ certain toys
    • Family/parents - buy gender specific toys and clothes
    • Authority figures - "boys will be boys" "you're not acting ladylike"
    • Separate bathrooms
    • Segregated activities - boy scouts and girl scouts, sports
    • social sanctions from peers if crossing a gender barrier
  38. Ethnography
    scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures
Card Set:
Soc 1101 General Terms Prelim 1
2016-03-14 07:17:51
Soc 1101 general terms perlim one sociology
Soc 1101
General terms and info that needs to be known for Prelim 1
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