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the state of immediate alarm when something is a serious threat to your well-being
T/F anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders in the US
Anxiety disorder stats
- 18% adults have DSM-5 anxiety disorder per year, 29% develop it at some point in life.
- only 1/5 seek help.
generalized anxiety disorder
another name? how long must it last? what percentage of people overall?
excessive anxiety in most situations, worry about almost anything
- -free floating
- -6 months
what is one of the most powerful form of societal stress?
what is societal stress?
what disorder develops from this?
ongoing stress according to recent events or demographics
generalized anxiety disorder
What racial group has the most generalized anxiety disorder? what percent?
african americans, 30% more likely than whites
what is the name for generalized anxiety disorder for latinos
nerves or nervios
What did freud believe about psychodynamic perspective on generalized anxiety?
- that all children experience a form of anxiety growing up and that all ego defense mechanisms are used to control it. When the defense mechanisms dont work, generalized anxiety happens
- -mechanisms can be too strong OR too weak
what are the 3 types of generalized anxiety freud believed children had?
- realistic- facing actual danger
- neurotic- repeatedly prevented from expressing id impulses
- moral- punished/threatened for expressing id impulses
What kind of therapies do Freudian psychodynamic therapists use on gen anxiety disorder?
free association and interpretations of dreams, etc to help clients be less of their id impulses and control them
what kind of therapies do object relation therapists use help people with gen anxiet disorder
free association and interpretations
help people identify and settle childhood relationship problems that cause anxiety
what kind of therapy is most useful for gen anxiety disorder
short-term psychodynamic therapy
humanistic perspective on gen anxiety disorder, what is the cause? how to fix it?
cause: a person constantly denies their true thoughts and feelings, which causes them to stop looking at themselves honestly and to stop accepting themselves.
treatment: client-centered therapy where the therapist shows unconditional positive regard so that the patient feels safe and open
Who created the humanistic perspective that a patient's gen anx disorder can be helped by a therapist showing unconditional positive regard for a patient with hard standards or, conditions of worth issues
what is the cognitive perspective for generalized anxiety disorder, and other forms?
psychological problems are caused by dysfunctional ways of thinking
who believed that maladaptive assumptions caused generalized anxiety from the cognitive perspective?
what is a maladaptive assumption? and what did he call them?
- Albert Ellis
- -being guided by an irrational belief that lead them to act inappropriately
- -basic irrational assumptions
what are the 3 basic irrational assumptions that Albert Ellis believed people with generalized anxiety have?
- -everyone significant to the person must love and approve of them
- -if things don't go as planned, it is awful and catastrophic
- -to be worthwhile, a person must be good at everything
Who believed that gen anxiety disorder was caused by silent assumptions?
What are silent assumptions?
- Aaron Beck
- They believe/assume they are in imminent danger
- "unsafe until proven safe" or "its best to assume the worst"
what is the metacognitive therapy and who by?
what are the types
- Adrian Wells
- those with gen anxiety disorder hold positive AND negative beliefs about worrying.
- positive-its a way to asses the value or cope with life threats
- negative- they believe that their worry is harmful and controllable, so they worry more
what is the intolerance of uncertainty theory?
when the chances of something happening worries you constantly, even if the chances are small
new explanations for GAD are called
new wave cognitive explanations
what is the avoidance theory of GAD
who developed this theory?
people with GAD have higher tendency to body arousal, and worrying helps them reduce it, maybe by distracting them
what are the 2 kinds of cognitive therapy approaches for those with GAD
- -help changing maladaptive assumptions
- -help clients understand the role that anxiety has and to change their views about their reactions to anxiety
therapy type developed by Ellis
rational-emotive therapy? what?
- rational emotive therapy
- points out the irrational assumption and suggests a more appropriate assumption. assigns hmwk to replace old ones with new.
Who developed mindfulness based therapy
what is it?
- Steven Hayes
- therapist helps clients recognize thoughts and worries, an teach them to accept them as mere thoughts rather than get rid of them
what is mindful meditation
learning to pay attention to thoughts and feelings that flow through meditation and to nonjudgementally just accept them as thoughts
what does the biological perspective believe about general anxiety
the cause of the disorder is biological factors
what are family pedigree studies
researchers determine how many and which relatives have the same disorder
what is a medication used to treat anxiety>
benzodiazepines: family of drugs as xanax, ativan, and valium
what neurotransmitters are effected by benzodiazepine? how?
- GABA receptors.
- benzodiazephine allows GABA to bind to its receptors so that it can inhibit the feedback system that causes anxiety
what parts of the brain are in the circuit that causes anxiety?
prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala
what are the 3 biological treatments for GAD? how do they work?
drug therapy: sedative-hypnotic drugs. they calm people in low doses, and help them sleep in higher doses
relaxation training: physical relaxation will lead to psychological relaxation. identify muscle groups, tense them, then release them.
biofeedback- using electrical signals from the body to train people to control physiological processes
what is a higher addictive kind of sedative-drug therapy?
what is the most widely applied method of biofeedback? how?
- provides feedback about the level of muscular tension
what is a phobia to DSM-5? types?
why diff from fear?
- a persistent/unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation.
- 1: specific phobia specified
- 2: fear of being in public places or situations where escape is difficult
phobia is much more intense and persistent with a much stronger desire of avoidance. it effects their lives
what is classical conditioning
two events occur close in time. creates strong assiciation
- observation and imitation
- see that others are afraid, and are also afraid
how are fears created? (3)
- -classical conditioning
- -stimulus generalization
- -responses to one stimulus are elicitied by other similar stimuli
- (a rushing waterfall is similar to poured milk)
Who conducted experiments to show how fears can be learned by classical conditioning (white rats)
John B Watson and Rosalie Rayner
Who conducted experiments to show how fears can be learned by modeling
what is a "confederate"
Albert Bandura and Theodore Rosenthal
-an accomplice to pretends to feel pain by twitching and yelling, showing fear
what is preparedness?
humans are predisposed to have certain fears. transmitted through evolutionary process to survive
behavioral treatments for specific phobias
3 of them, developed by who?
-together called what?
together called exposure treatments
- -systematic desensitization by Joseph Wolfe, learn to relax by gradually facing the fear
- -flooding, fears will stop when people are constantly exposed to them to see that they're harmless
- -modeling, the therapist confronts the fear so that the patient sees that theres no reason to be afraid
behavioral treatments for agoraphobia
help them venture farther and farther from comfort zone
what is a social anxiety disorder
who is more likely to have it
severe, persistent, irrational fear of situations where that may face scrutiny or embarrassment
poor and african americans
what causes social anxiety disorder?
2 distinct features
people hold social beliefs and expectations that consistently work against them
- -sufferers have overwhelming social fears
- -they often lack communication skills
what is panic attack
who is more prone?
periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reaches its peak, then passes
chest pain, choking sensations, sweating, hot and cold, etc
-happens frequently and have dysfunctional changes in their thinking
what brain circuit and neurotransmitter causes panic disorder
-amygdala, hippocampus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamuus, central grey matter, and locus coeruleus
what part of the brain circuit does anxiety, panic, and OCD have in common
cognitive perspective of how panic attacks are caused
purpose of treatments
people are misinterpreting their physiological events
to help them correct those interpretations
what is a biological challenge test
medicines are given to produce hyperventilation, then participants are given a task. people with anxiety overanalyze the sensation and are much more upset by it
panic prone people focus much more on their bodily sensations, or are unable to asses them logically, and automatically interpret them as being very dangerous
cognitive therapy for panic disorders: purpose? steps?
what percentage of people benefit?
-to correct people's misinterpretations
- -educate clients about the attack's general nature
- -teach clients more accurate interpretations
- -teach relaxation techniques
-biological challenge tests may be given under supervision to help patients use their new skill
persistent thought, idea, impulse or image that invades a persons consciousness
repetitive and rigid behavior or mental acts that a person feels they must do to avoid anxiety
can a minor obsession be helpful in life
checklist of DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive disorder
can anxiety play a role?
- -it feels unreasonable/excessive
- -it takes up considerable time
- -interferes with daily function, causes stress/impairment
the psychodynamic perspective of OCD is that the id produces anxiety-causing thoughts, and the ego defense mechanisms work to lessen the anxiety
what are the 3 ego defense mechanisms?
- isolation-they disown their unwanted thoughts
- undoing-perform acts that "cancel" their undesired impulses
- reaction formation-live a lifestyle that directly opposes their impulses
- pg 164
What is the behavior perspective on the cause of OCD
they focus on treating the compulsion verses the obsession because they thing OCD is formed by relating a particular action with good luck
Who did the experiment with 12 OCD hand washers, showing that after the action, the reward was an alleviated anxiety
What is exposure and response/ritual prevention and who created it?
what percent of clients are helped by this?
clients are exposed to the object or situation that creates anxiety, and they are asked to resist their ritual. the therapist sets the example first. this can be done in many therapy settings
whats the cognitive perspective on the cause of OCD?
everyone has repetitive, unwanted thoughts but they can dismiss them. OCD people cannot and blame themselves for it, and that bad things will happen. so they work to neutralize them, or do things to make amends.
what makes a person more prone to OCD?
- -they tend to be more depressed than others
- -have an exceptionally high standard of conduct and morality
- -inflated sense of responsibility in life and think their intrusive thoughts will cause harm
- -think they should have perfect control over their thoughts and behaviors
what combination of therapy is the best for OCD
cognitive and behavioral
what is the biological perspective on the cause of OCD?
- there seems to be a similar gene composition in relatives with OCD
- -abnormally low activity of serotonin neurotransmitter.. acts as neuromodulator of glutamine, dopamine, and GABA
- -abnormal functioning in key parts of the brain
What is the brain circuit of OCD?
is it more or less active than most people?
orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala, and cingulate cortex
what biological treatments are used for OCD?
What area would DSM-5 put disorders like hoarding, trichotillomania, excoriation, etc?
what is excoriation?
- skin picking
- triggered by anxiety and/or stress
body dysmorphic disorder
preoccupied with the belief that they have a defect or flaw in their appearance. it is imagined or greatly exaggerated
what kind of treatment combines biological, cognitive, and behavioral?