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Important 3C compounds in gluconeogenesis
Lactate, pyruvate and glycerol
Site of gluconeogenesis
Key free energy changes
- (Std, Actual)
- Glucose + ATP = (-16.7,-33.4)
- Fructose-6-phosphate + ATP = (-14.2,-22.2)
- PEP + ATP = (-31.4,-16.7)
Gluconeogenesis is glycolysis reversed. What steps are different?
- pyruvate kinase/(pyruvate carboxylase)(PEP carboxykinase)
Gluconeogensis step 2 mechanism
- Oxaloacetate's carbon 4 leaves, producing enol
- Simultaneously, the ketone dephosphorylates GTP
Pentose phosphate pathway
- Alternative path to oxidize glucose
- NADPH prevents oxidative damage
Key steps in pentose phosphate
- 1. Oxidation (1) to intramolecular ester
- 2. Ester hydrolysis.
- 3. Oxidation (3) and decarboxylation
- 4. Isomerization to aldehyde