Chapter 4

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  1. The study of energy of the human body.
    bioenergetics
  2. All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself.  The process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used and disposed of by the body.
    Metabolism
  3. The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise.
    Exercise Metabolism
  4. The material or substance on which and enzyme acts.
    Substrates
  5. Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which include starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. All source of energy.
    Carbohydrates (all carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar).
  6. A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent, protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel.
    Glucose
  7. The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells.  When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells.
    Glycogen
  8. One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body.  They help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy.  They also serve as energy stores for the body.
    Fats
  9. In food, there are two types of fats.
    saturated and unsaturated.
  10. The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body.
    Triglycerides.
  11. Amino acids linked by peptide bods, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and usually sulfur and that have several essential biologic compounds.
    Protein
  12. The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as amino acids.
    Glucoceogenesis
  13. Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body.
    Adenosine triphosphate
  14. A high-energy compound occurring in all cells fromwhich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed.
    Adenosine diphosphate
  15. The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFAs) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP.
    B-oxidation
  16. The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise.
    Excess postexercise oxygen consuption (EPOC)

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Chapter 4
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