Pl Sc 352 Poisonous Plants

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  1. secondary compound
    • not required for actual plant growth
    • many are poisonous
    • production of secondary compounds can increase plant fitness
  2. Types of poisons (produced by plant)
    • Alkaloids (nicotine, morphine)
    • Glycosides (Salicin, saponin)
    • organic acids (oxalates)
    • glucosinolates (mustard family)
  3. types of poisons accumulated by the plant (not secondary compounds)
    nitrates, heavy metals
  4. ** top toxic plants (families) in AB **
    • Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)
    • Juncaginaceae (arrowgrass family)
    • Apiaceae (carrot family)
  5. Top toxic plants in AB
    • Ranunculaceae family:
    • - Tall Larkspur (Delphinium glaucum)
    • - Low Larkspur (Delphinium bicolor)

    • Juncaginaceae family:
    • - Seaside Arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima)

    • Apiaceae family:
    • - Western Water Hemlock (Cicuta douglasii)
  6. Tall Larkspur
    Delphinium glaucum

    • native perennial
    • found in foothills of rockies
    • highest cause of cattle poisoning every year
    • prefers well drained soils, shade, recently cleared lands
    • Methyllycaconitine (alkaloid) poisoning agent
  7. Low Larkspur
    Delphinium bicolor

    • native perennial
    • grasslands
    • grows in moist soils
    • Methyllycaconitine (alkaline) poisoning agent
  8. Methyllycaconitine
    • alkaloid poisoning agent
    • concentrated in the reproductive parts
    • in mature plants, only seeds are poisonous
    • can control by spraying 2,4-D during flowering stage
  9. Field Horsetail
    Equisetum arvense 

    • thiaminase toxic substance (also destroys vitamin B-1)
    • enzyme
    • all parts of plant toxic
    • symptoms: weight loss, weakness, can result in death
  10. Death Camas
    Zygadenus gramineus

    • zygadenine toxic substance (steroidal alkaloid)
    • v poisonous to sheep
    • all parts of plant toxic
  11. Cow cockle
    Vaccaria pyramidata

    • saponin-glycoside toxin (dissolves in water)
    • can result in damage to the CNS
  12. Tall buttercup
    Ranunculus acris

    • ranunculin toxin (glycoside)
    • leaves, stems, flower (esp) are toxic
    • all animals can be affected, mostly cattle and sheep
  13. Lamb's quarters
    Chenopodiium album

    • accumulates nitrates and soluble oxalates
    • leaves and stems toxic
  14. Kochia
    Kochia scoparia

    • accumulates nitrates and oxalates
    • produces saponins and alkaloids
    • flowers, leaves, seeds poisonous
    • increased rainfall can raise the oxalate content in plants
  15. Redroot pigweed
    Amaranthus retroflexus

    • leaves and stems toxic
    • accumulates nitrates mostly
  16. Mustard family
    • produces glucosinolates
    • all parts toxic
  17. Nightshade family
    • solanine = major toxin
    • also produces glycoalkaloids
    • nitrates also accumulate in plant material
    • all parts potentially toxic
  18. Yellow toadflax
    Linaria vulgaris

    • prunasin (glycoside) 
    • antirrinoside (glucoside)
    • leaves and stem toxic
    • cattle usually avoid grazing plants
  19. False ragweed
    Iva xanthifolia 

    • unknown toxin
    • leaves are toxic
  20. Prickly lettuce
    Lactuca scariola

    • unknown toxic 
    • new shoots are toxic 
    • cattle can develop breathing problems
  21. Common groundsel
    Senecio vulgaris

    • senecionine toxin
    • horses are highly sensitive
    • can cause liver damage
  22. Prohibited noxious
    • plant not currently found in AB or found in small patches
    • control focus is on eradication
    • applies to both plant and the plant seed
  23. noxious
    • plant that is widely distributed in AB
    • eradication not considered feasible option
    • control focus is on containment
  24. Prohibited noxious weeds in AB
    • purple loosestrife
    • garlic mustard
    • nodding thistle
    • yellow starthistle
    • giant hogweed
  25. noxious weeds in AB (5)
    • field bindweed
    • baby's breath
    • tall buttercup
    • white cockle
    • oxeye daisy

Card Set Information

Author:
hcunning
ID:
317673
Filename:
Pl Sc 352 Poisonous Plants
Updated:
2016-03-21 01:47:11
Tags:
poisonous plants
Folders:
plant science
Description:
poisonous plants cards
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