Database Connectivity and Web Technologies

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  1. Mechanisms through which application programs connect and communicate with
    data repositories
    Database connectivity
  2. Database connectivity software is also known as ___________ because it provides an
    interface between the application program and the database.
    database middleware
  3. Represents the data management application, such as Oracle RDBMS, SQL Server DBMS, or IBM DBMS, that will be
    used to store the data generated by the application program
    data repository
  4. The data repository, also known as the ____________
    data source
  5. (T/F) The need for standard database connectivity interfaces cannot be overstated. Just as SQL has become the de facto data
    manipulation language, there is a need for a standard database connectivity interface that will enable applications to
    connect to data repositories.
  6. ODBC, OLE-DB, and ADO.NET form the backbone of ______________
    Microsoft’s Universal Data Access (UDA) architecture
  7. A collection of technologies used to access any type of data source and manage the data through a common interface.
    Universal Data Access (UDA) architecture
  8. Refers to the connection interface that is provided by the database vendor and that is unique to that vendor
    Native SQL connectivity
  9. (T/F)Native database connectivity interfaces are optimized for “their” DBMS, and those interfaces support access to most,
    if not all, of the database features. However, maintaining multiple native interfaces for different databases can become
    a burden for the programmer. Therefore, the need for “universal” database connectivity arises.
  10. Developed in early 1990s, ____________ is Microsoft’s implementation of a superset of the
    SQL Access Group Call Level Interface (CLI) standard for database access
    Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
  11. Developed in early 1990s, Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is Microsoft’s implementation of a superset of the SQL Access Group _________ standard for database access
    Call Level Interface (CLI)
  12. ODBC allows any Windows application to access relational data sources, using SQL via a standard ____________
    application programming interface (API)
  13. (T/F) API makes it easy to develop a program by providing all of the building blocks; the programmer puts the blocks
  14. (T/F) ODBC was the first widely adopted database middleware standard, and it enjoyed rapid adoption in Windows
  15. An object-oriented API used to access MS Access, MS FoxPro, and dBase
    databases (using the Jet data engine) from Visual Basic programs
    Data Access Objects (DAO)
  16. Provided an optimized interface that exposed to programmers the functionality of the Jet data engine. The _______ interface can also be used to access other relational-style data sources.
    Data Access Objects (DAO)
  17. A higher-level object-oriented application interface used to access remote
    database servers
    Remote Data Objects (RDO)
  18. ______ uses the lower-level DAO and ODBC for direct access to databases. _______ was optimized to deal with server-based databases, such as MS SQL Server, Oracle, and DB2.
    Remote Data Objects (RDO)
  19. (T/F) Client applications can use ODBC to access relational data sources.
    However, the DAO and RDO object interfaces provide more functionality. DAO and RDO make use of the underlying
    ODBC data services.
  20. ODBC, DAO, and RDO are implemented as shared code that is dynamically linked to the Windows operating environment through _________, which are stored as files with the .dll extension
    dynamic-link libraries (DLLs)
  21. The basic ODBC architecture has three main components:
    • A high-level ODBC API through which application programs access ODBC functionality.
    • A driver manager that is in charge of managing all database connections.
    • An ODBC driver that communicates directly to the DBMS.
  22. Defining a data source is the first step in using ODBC. To define a data source, you must create a ___________ for the data source.
    data source name (DSN)
  23. To create a DSN you need to provide:
    • An ODBC driver
    • A DSN name
    • ODBC driver parameters
  24. (T/F) Once the ODBC data source is defined, application programmers can write to the ODBC API by issuing specific commands and providing the required parameters. The ODBC Driver Manager will properly route the calls to the appropriate data source.
  25. database middleware that adds object-oriented functionality for access to relational and nonrelational data and was the first part of Microsoft’s strategy to provide a unified object-oriented framework for the development of next-generation applications.
    Object Linking and Embedding for Database (OLE-DB)
  26. Composed of a series of COM objects that provide low-level database connectivity for applications and the objects contain data and methods, known as the interface.
    Object Linking and Embedding for Database (OLE-DB)
  27. The OLE-DB model is better understood when you divide its functionality into two types of objects:
    • Consumers are objects (applications or processes) that request and use data.
    • Providers are objects that manage the connection with a data source and provide data to the consumers.
    •            Data providers provide data to other processes
    •            Service providers provide additional functionality to consumers
  28. (T/F) OLE-DB provided additional capabilities for the applications accessing the data. However, it did not provide support
    for scripting languages, especially the ones used for Web development, such as Active Server Pages (ASP) and ActiveX.
  29. A ______ is written in a programming language that is not compiled but is interpreted and executed at run time.
  30. Provides a high-level application-oriented interface to interact with OLE-DB, DAO, and RDO and provides a unified interface to access data from any programming language that uses the underlying OLE-DB objects.
    ActiveX Data Objects (ADO)
  31. The data access component of Microsoft’s .NET application development framework.
  32. A component-based platform for developing distributed, heterogeneous, interoperable applications aimed at manipulating any type of data over any network under any operating system and any programming language.
    Microsoft .NET framework
  33. A disconnected memory-resident representation of the database
  34. (T/F) The DataSet is internally stored in XML format, and the data in the DataSet can be made persistent as XML documents.
  35. (T/F) The ADO.NET framework consolidates all data access functionality under one integrated object model.
  36. The ________ object defines the data source used, the name of the server, the database, and so on. This object enables the client application to open and close a connection to a database
  37. The _________ object represents a database command to be executed within a specified database connection. This object contains the actual SQL code or a stored procedure call to be run by the database. When a SELECT statement is executed, the Command object returns a set of rows and columns
  38. The _________ object is a specialized object that creates a read-only session with the database to retrieve data sequentially (forward only) in a very fast manner.
  39. The _______ object is in charge of managing a DataSet object. This is the most specialized object in the ADO.NET framework. The _________ object uses those objects to populate and synchronize the data in the DataSet with the permanent data source data.
  40. The ________ object is the in-memory representation of the data in the database. This object contains two main objects. The DataTableCollection object contains a collection of DataTable objects that make up the “in-memory” database, and the DataRelationCollection object contains a collection of objects describing the data relationships and ways to associate one row in a table to the related row in another table.
  41. The _______ object represents the data in tabular format. This object has one very important property: PrimaryKey, which allows the enforcement of entity integrity
  42. (T/F) A DataSet is a simple database with tables, rows, and constraints. Even more important, the DataSet doesn’t require a permanent connection to the data source. The DataAdapter uses the SelectCommand object to populate the DataSet from a data source. However, once the DataSet is populated, it is completely independent of the data source, which is why it’s called “disconnected.”
  43. An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that runs on top of Web browser software.
  44. (T/F) Sun Microsystems created Java as a “write once, run anywhere” environment. That means that a programmer can write a Java application once and then without any modification, run the application in multiple environments.
  45. An application programming interface that allows a Java program to interact with a wide range of data sources (relational databases, tabular data sources, spreadsheets, and text files)
    Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
  46. (T/F) The effects of bad database design, implementation, and management are multiplied in an environment in which transactions might be measured in hundreds of thousands per day, rather than in hundreds per day.
  47. The main hub through which all Internet services are accessed.
    Web server
  48. (T/F) Dynamic Web pages are at the heart of current Web sites
  49. A program that interacts directly with the Web server to handle specific types of requests makes it possible to retrieve and present the query results, but what’s more important is that it provides its services to the Web server in a way that is totally transparent to the client browser.
    server-side extension
  50. A database server-side extension program is also known as __________
    Web-to-database middleware
  51. A newer Web server interface standard that is more efficient and faster
    than a CGI script. _______ are more efficient because they are implemented as shared code or as dynamic-link libraries
    (DLLs). That means the _______ is treated as part of the Web server program that is dynamically invoked when needed.
    application programming interface (API)
  52. (T/F) The interaction between the Web server and the Web-to-database middleware is crucial to the development of a successful Internet database implementation. Therefore, the middleware must be well integrated with the other Internet services and the components that are involved in its use.
  53. (T/F) Extending Web server functionality implies that the Web server and the Web-to-database middleware will properly
    communicate with each other. If a Web server is to communicate successfully with an external program, both programs must use a standard way to exchange messages and to respond to requests. A Web server interface defines how a Web server communicates with external programs.
  54. Uses script files that perform specific functions based on the client’s parameters that are passed to the Web server. The script file is a small program containing commands written in a programming language—usually Perl, C#, or Visual Basic.
    Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
  55. (T/F) APIs are faster than CGI scripts because the code resides in memory, so there is no need to run an external program for each request. Instead, the same API serves all requests
  56. The application software in the client computer, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Apple Safari, or Mozilla Firefox, that lets end users navigate (browse) the Web.
    Web browser
  57. The Web browser’s job is to ______ the HTML code that it receives from the Web server and to present the various page components in a standard formatted way.
  58. The Web is a ________ which means that at any given time, a Web server does not know the status of any of the clients communicating with
    stateless system
  59. (T/F) A Web browser’s function is to display a page on the client computer. The browser—through its use of HTML—does not have computational abilities beyond formatting output text and accepting form field inputs. Even when the browser accepts form field data, there is no way to perform immediate data entry validation.
  60. Add functionality to the Web browser. Although client-side extensions are available in various forms, the most commonly encountered extensions are Plug-ins, Java and JavaScript, ActiveX and VBScript.
    Client-side extensions
  61. An external application that is automatically invoked by the browser when needed. Because it is an external application, the plug-in is operating-system-specific.
  62. A scripting language (one that enables the running of a series of commands or macros) that allows Web authors to design interactive sites. ________ code is embedded in the Web pages. It is downloaded with the Web page and is activated when a specific event takes
    place—such as a mouse click on an object or a page being loaded from the server into memory.
  63. Microsoft’s alternative to Java, a specification for writing programs that will run inside the Microsoft client browser (Internet Explorer). Because _______ is oriented mainly toward Windows applications, it has low portability. It extends the Web browser by adding “controls” to Web pages.
  64. Another Microsoft product that is used to extend browser functionality, is derived from Microsoft Visual Basic. Like JavaScript, _______ code is embedded inside an HTML page and is activated by triggering events
    such as clicking a link.
  65. A middleware application that expands the functionality of Web servers by linking them
    to a wide range of services, such as databases, directory systems, and search engines. It also provides a consistent run-time environment for Web applications.
    Web application server
  66. Enables all types of organizations to market and sell products and services to a global market of millions of users. ___ transactions—the sale of products or services—can take place between businesses (business-to-business, or B2B) or between a business and a consumer (business-to-consumer, or B2C).
    Electronic commerce (e-commerce)
  67. The HTML Web page displayed on the Web browser would include formatting as well as the order details. HTML _____ describe how something looks on the Web page, such as bold type or heading style, and often come in
    pairs to start and end formatting features.
  68. A meta-language used to represent and manipulate data elements. ________ is designed to facilitate the exchange of structured documents, such as orders and invoices, over the Internet
    Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  69. (T/F) XML is not a new version or replacement for HTML. XML is concerned with the description and representation of the data, rather than the way the data are displayed. XML provides the semantics that facilitate the sharing, exchange, and manipulation of structured documents over organizational boundaries.
  70. The next generation of HTML based on the XML framework. The _______ specification expands the HTML standard to include XML features and requires very strict adherence to syntax requirements.
    Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML)
  71. (T/F) B2B solutions require a high degree of business integration between companies. Companies that use B2B transactions must have a way to understand and validate each other’s tags.
  72. A file with a .dtd extension that describes XML elements—in effect, a ____ file provides the composition of the database’s logical model and defines the syntax rules or valid elements for each type of XML document.
    Document Type Definition (DTD)
  73. (T/F) A DTD only provides descriptive information for understanding how the elements—root, parent, child, mandatory, or optional—relate to one another. It provides limited additional semantic value, such as data type support or data validation rules. That information is very important for database administrators who are in charge of large e-commerce databases.
  74. An advanced data definition language that is used to describe the structure (elements, data types, relationship types, ranges, and default values) of XML data documents. It more closely maps to database terminology and features
    XML schema
  75. An _______ file uses a syntax that resembles an XML document.
    XML schema definition (XSD)
  76. The _______ specification provides the mechanism to display XML data. _____ is used to define the rules by which XML data are formatted and displayed.
    Extensible Style Language (XSL)
  77. describe the general mechanism that is used to extract and process data from one XML document and enable its transformation within another document.
    Extensible Style Language Transformations (XSLT)
  78. define the presentation rules applied to XML elements—somewhat like presentation
    XSL style sheets
  79. Internet Explorer also provides ______ of XML data to HTML documents
    data binding
  80. Refers to a new wave of Internet-based data
    management services that provide relational data storage, access, and management to companies of any size without the typically high costs of in-house hardware, software, infrastructure and personnel.
    SQL data services (SDS)
  81. (T/F) The use of SQL data services could enable rapid application development for businesses with limited information technology resources (hardware, software, personnel, or funding), and could enable them to deploy services in new and innovative ways.

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Database Connectivity and Web Technologies
2016-03-21 13:47:25
Chapter 14
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