muscles.txt

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jtsterner
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3178
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muscles.txt
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2010-02-13 21:13:37
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muscles
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Origin, Insertion, Innervation & Function
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  1. Trapezius
    O - Superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of CVII to TXII

    I - Lateral one-third of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula

    In - Motor-accessory nerve [XI]; proprioception-C3 and C4

    F - Assists in rotating the scapula during abduction of humerus above horizontal; upper fibers elevate, middle fibers adduct, and lower fibers depress scapula
  2. Levator Scapulae
    O - Transverse processes of CI to CIV

    I - Upper portion medial border of scapula

    In - C3 to C4 and dorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)

    F - Elevates scapula
  3. Latissimus Dorsi
    O - Spinous processes of TVII to LV and sacrum, iliac crest, ribs X to XII

    I - Floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus

    In - Thoracodorsal nerve (C6 to C8)

    F - Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus
  4. Rhomboid Major
    O - Spinous processes of TII to TV

    I - Medial border of scapula between spine and inferior angle

    In - Dorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)

    F - Retracts (adducts) and elevates scapula
  5. Rhomnoid Minor
    O - Lower portion of ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of CVII and TI

    I - Medial border of scapula at the spine of scapula

    In - Dorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)

    F - Retracts (adducts) and elevates scapula
  6. Serratus Posterior Inferior
    O - Spinous processes of TXI to LIII and supraspinous ligaments

    I - Lower border of ribs IX to XII just lateral to their angles

    In - Anterior rami of lower thoracic nerves (T9 to T12)

    F - Depresses ribs IX to XII and may prevent lower ribs from being elevated when the diaphragm contracts
  7. Serratus Posterior Superior
    O - Lower portion of ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of CVII to TIII and supraspinous ligaments

    I - Upper border of ribs II to V just lateral to their angles

    In - Anterior rami of upper thoracic nerves (T2 to T5)

    F - Elevates ribs II to V
  8. External Intercostal
    O - Inferior margin of rib above

    I - Superior margin of rib below

    In - Intercostal nerves; T1-T11

    F - Most active during inspiration; supports intercostal space; moves ribs superiorly
  9. Pectoralis Major
    O -Clavicular head-anterior surface of medial half of clavicle; sternocostal head-anterior surface of sternum; first seven costal cartilages; sternal end of sixth rib; aponeurosis of external oblique

    I -Lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus

    In -Medial and lateral pectoral nerves; clavicular head [C5, C6]; sternocostal head [C6, C7, C8, T1]

    F -Flexion, adduction, and medial rotation of arm at glenohumeral joint; clavicular head-flexion of extended arm; sternocostal head-extension of flexed arm
  10. Internal Intercostal
    O -Lateral edge of costal groove of rib above

    I -Superior margin of rib below deep to the attachment of the related external intercostal

    In -Intercostal nerves; T1-T11

    F -Most active during expiration; supports intercostal space; moves ribs inferiorly
  11. Subclavius
    O - First rib at junction between rib and costal cartilage

    I -- Groove on inferior surface of middle one-third of clavicle

    In -Nerve to subclavius [C5, C6]

    F -Pulls tip of shoulder down; pulls clavicle medially to stabilize sternoclavicular joint
  12. Innermost Intercostal
    O -Medial edge of costal groove of rib above

    I -Internal aspect of superior margin of rib below

    In -Intercostal nerves; T1-T11

    F -Acts with internal intercostal muscles
  13. Pectoralis Minor
    O - Anterior surfaces and superior borders of ribs III to V; and from deep fascia overlying the related intercostal spaces

    I -Coracoid process of scapula (medial border and upper surface)

    In - Medial pectoral nerve [C5, C6, C7, C8, T1]

    F -Pulls tip of shoulder down; protracts scapula
  14. Serratus Anterior
    O -Lateral surfaces of upper 8-9 ribs and deep fascia overlying the related intercostal spaces

    I -Costal surface of medial border of scapula

    In -Long thoracic nerve [C5, C6, C7]

    F -Protraction and rotation of the scapula; keeps medial border and inferior angle of scapula opposed to thoracic wall
  15. Stylohyoid
    O -Base of styloid process

    I -hyoid bone

    In -Facial nerve [VII]

    F -Elevates hyoid bone
  16. Digastric-Anterior belly
    O -Digastric fossa on lower inside of mandible

    I - Attachment of tendon between two bellies to body of hyoid bone

    In - Mylohyoid nerve from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve [V3]

    F -Opens mouth by lowering mandible; raises hyoid bone
  17. Digastric-Posterior belly
    O -Mastoid notch on medial side of mastoid process of temporal bone

    I -Attachment of tendon between two bellies to body of hyoid bone

    In -Facial nerve [VII]

    F -Pulls hyoid bone upward and back
  18. Geniohyoid
    O -Inferior mental spine on inner surface of mandible

    I -Anterior surface of body of hyoid bone

    In -Branch from anterior ramus of C1 (carried along the hypoglossal nerve [XII])

    F -Fixed mandible elevates and pulls hyoid bone forward; fixed hyoid bone pulls mandible downward and inward
  19. Mylohyoid
    O -Mylohyoid line on mandible

    I -Body of hyoid bone and fibers from muscle on opposite side

    In -Mylohyoid nerve from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve [V3]

    F - Support and elevation of floor of mouth; elevation of hyoid
  20. Sternohyoid
    O - Posterior aspect of sternoclavicular joint and adjacent manubrium of sternum

    I -Body of hyoid bone medial to attachment of omohyoid muscle

    In -Anterior rami of C1 to C3 through the ansa cervicalis

    F -Depresses hyoid bone after swallowing
  21. Omohyoid
    O -Superior border of scapula medial to suprascapular notch

    I -Lower border of body of hyoid bone just lateral to attachment of sternohyoid

    In -Anterior rami of C1 to C3 through the ansa cervicalis

    F - Depresses and fixes hyoid bone
  22. Sternothyroid
    O - Posterior surface of manubrium of sternum

    I -Oblique line on lamina of thyroid cartilage

    In -Anterior rami of C1 to C3 through the ansa cervicalis

    F -Draws larynx (thyroid cartilage) downward
  23. Thyrohyoid
    O -Oblique line on lamina of thyroid cartilage

    I -Greater horn and adjacent aspect of body of hyoid bone

    In -Fibers from anterior ramus of C1 carried along hypoglossal nerve [XII]

    F -Depresses hyoid bone, but when hyoid bone is fixed raises larynx
  24. Deltoid
    O -Inferior angle of the crest of the spine of the scapula, lateral margin of acromion, anterior border of lateral one-third of clavicle

    I -Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

    In -Axillary nerve [C5,C6]

    F -Major abductor of arm (abducts arm beyond initial 15* done by supraspinatus); clavicular fibers assist in flexing the arm; posterior fibers assist in extending the arm
  25. Teres Major
    O -Elongate oval area on the posterior surface of the inferior angle of the scapula

    I -Medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus on the anterior surface of the humerus

    In -Lower (inferior) subscapular nerve [C5,C6.C7]

    F -Medial rotation, adduction, and extension of the arm at the glenohumeral joint
  26. Supraspinatus
    O -Supraspinatus Fossa

    I -Most superior facet on the greater tubercle of the humerus

    In -Suprascapular nerve [C5,C6]

    F -Rotator cuff muscle; initiation of abduction of arm to 15* at glenohumeral joint
  27. Infraspinatus
    O -Infraspinatus Fossa

    I -Middle facet on posterior surface of the greater tubercle of the humerus

    In -Suprascapular nerve [C5,C6]

    F -Rotator cuff muscle; lateral rotation of arm at the glenohumeral joint
  28. Teres Minor
    O -Middle part of lateral border of scapula

    I -Inferior facet on the posterior surface of the greater tubercle of the humerus

    In -Axillary nerve [C5,C6]

    F -Rotator cuff muscle; lateral rotation of arm at the glenohumeral joint
  29. Subscapularis
    O -Subscapular fossa

    I -Lesser tubercle of humerus

    In -Upper & lower subscapular nerves [C5,C6,C7]

    F -Rotator cuff muscle; medial rotation of the arm at glenohumeral joint
  30. Biceps brachii
    O -Long head-supraglenoid tubercle of scapula; short head-apex of coracoid process

    I -Radial tuberosity

    In -Musculocutaneous nerve [C5,C6]

    F -Powerful flexor of the forearm at the elbow joint and supinator of the forearm; accessory flexor of the arm at glenohumeral joint
  31. Triceps brachii
    O -Long head-infraglenoid tubercle of scapula; medial & lateral heads-posterior surface of humerus

    I -Olecranon

    In -Radial nerve [C6,C7,C8]

    F -Extension of the forearm at elbow joint. Long head can also extend & adduct the arm at glenohumeral joint
  32. Coracobrachialis
    O -Apex of coracoid process

    I -Linear roughening on midshaft of humerus on medial side

    In - Musculocutaneous nerve [C5,C6,C7]

    F -Flexor of the arm at glenohumeral joint
  33. Brachialis
    O -Anterior aspect of humerus (medial & lateral surfaces) & adjacent intermuscular septae

    I -Tuberosity of ulna

    In - Musculocutaneous nerve [C5,C6]; (small contribution by radial nerve [C7] to lateral part of muscle)

    F -Powerful flexor of the forearm at elbow joint
  34. Brachioradialis
    O -Proximal part of lateral supraepicondylar ridge of humerus & adjacent intermuscular septum

    I -Lateral surface of distal end of radius

    In -Radial nerve [C5,C6] before division into superficial & deep branches

    F -Accessory flexor of elbow joint when forearm is midpronated
  35. Supinator
    O -Superficial part-lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral & anular ligaments; deep part-supinator crest of ulna

    I -Lateral surface of radius superior to the anterior oblique line

    In -Posterior interosseous nerve [C6,C7]

    F -Supination
  36. Anconeus
    O -Lateral epicondyle of humerus

    I -Olecranon & proximal posterior surface of ulna

    In -Radial nerve [C6,C7,C8] (via branch to medial head of triceps brachii)

    F -Abduction of the ulna in pronation; accessory extensor of elbow joint
  37. Extensor carpi ulnaris
    O -Lateral epicondyle of humerus & posterior border of ulna

    I -Tubercle on base of the medial side of metacarpal V

    In -Posterior interosseous nerve [C7,C8]

    F -Extends & adducts the wrist
  38. Extensor carpi radialis longus
    O -Distal part of lateral supraepicondylar ridge of humerus & adjacent intermuscular septum

    I -Dorsal surface of base of metacarpal II

    In -Radial nerve [C6,C7] before division into superficial & deep branches

    F -Extends and abducts the wrist
  39. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
    O -Lateral epincondyle of humerus & adjacent intermuscular septum

    I -Dorsal surface of base of metacarpals II & III

    In -Deep branch of radial nerve [C7,C8] before penetrating supinator muscle

    F -Extends & abducts the wrist
  40. Extensor digitorum
    O -Lateral epicondyle of humerus & adjacent intermuscular septum & deep fascia

    I -Four tendons, which insert via extensor hoods into the dorsal aspects of the bases of the middle & distal phalanges of the index, middle, ring, & little fingers

    In -Posterior interosseous nerve [C7,C8]

    F -Extends the index, middle, ring, & little fingers; can also extend the wrist
  41. Extensor indicis
    O -Posterior surface of ulna (distal to extensor pollicis longus) & adjacent interosseous membrane

    I -Extensor hood of index finger

    In -Posterior interosseus nerve [C7,C8]

    F -Extends index finger
  42. Extensor digiti minimi
    O -Lateral epicondyle of humerus & adjacent intermuscular septum together with extensor digitorum

    I -Extensor hood of the little finger

    In -Posterior interosseous nerve [C7,C8]

    F -Extends the little finger
  43. Abductor pollicis longus
    O -Posterior surface of ulna & radius (distal to the attachments of supinator & anconeus), & intervening interosseous membrane

    I -Lateral side of base of metacarpal I

    In -Posterior interosseous nerve [C7,C8]

    F -Abducts carpometacarpal joint of thumb; accessory extensor of the thumb
  44. Extensor pollicis longus
    O -Posterior surface of ulna (distal to the abductor pollicis longus) & adjacent interosseous membrane

    I -Dorsal surface of base of distal phalanx of thumb

    In -Posterior interosseous nerve [C7,C8]

    F -Extends interphalangeal joint of the thumb; can also extend carpometacarpal & metacarpophalangeal joints of the thumb
  45. Extensor pollicis brevis
    O -Posterior surface of radius (distal to the abductor pollicis longus) & adjacent interosseous membrane

    I -Dorsal surface of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

    In -Posterior interosseous nerve [C7,C8]

    F -Extends interphalangeal joint of the thumb; can also extend carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
  46. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    O -Humeral head-common flexor tendon off the medial epicondyle of humerus; ulnar head-olecranon & posterior border of ulna

    I -Pisoform bone, and then via pisohamate & pisometacarpal ligaments onto the hamate & base of metacarpal V

    In -Median n. [C7-T1]

    F -Flexes & adducts the wrist
  47. Pronator Teres
    O -Humeral head-common flexor tendon off the medial epicondyle of humerus & adjacent supraepicondylar ridge; ulnar head-medial side of coronoid process

    I -Roughening on lateral surface, midshaft of radius

    In -Median n. [C6-C7]

    F -Pronation
  48. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    O -Common flexor tendon off the medial epicondyle of humerus

    I -Base of metacarpals II and III

    In -Median n. [C6,C7]

    F -Flexes & abducts the wrist
  49. Palmaris Longus
    O -Common flexor tendon off the medial epicondyle of humerus

    I -Palmar aponeurosis of the hand

    In -Median n. [C7,C8]

    F -Flexes wrist joint; b/c the palmar aponeurosis anchors skin of the hand, contraction of the muscle resists shear forces when gripping
  50. Pronator Quadratus
    O -Linear ridge on distal anterior surface of ulna

    I -Distal anterior surface of radius

    In -Median n. (anterior interosseus n.) [C7,C8]

    F -Pronation
  51. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    O -Anterior surface of radius & radial half of interosseous membrane

    I -Palmar surface of base of distal phalanx of thumb

    In -Median n. (anterior interosseous n.) [C7,C8]

    F -Flexes interphalangeal joint of the thumb; can also flex metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb
  52. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    O -Anterior & medial surface of ulna & anterior medial half of interosseous membrane

    I -Four tendons, which attach to the palmar surfaces of the distal phalanges of the index, middle, ring & little fingers

    In -Lateral half by Median n. (anterior interosseous n.); medial half by Ulnar n. [C8,T1]

    F -Flexes distal interphalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring & little fingers; can also flex metacarpophalangeal joints of the same fingers and the wrist joint
  53. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    O -Humero-ulnar head-common flexor tendon off the medial epicondyle of humerus & adjacent margin of coronoid process; radial head-oblique line of radius

    I -Four tendons, which attach to the palmar surfaces of the middle phalanges of the index, middle, ring & little fingers

    In -Median n. [C8,T1]

    F -Flexes proximal interphalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring & little fingers; can also flex metacarpophalangeal joints of the same fingers & the wrist joint
  54. Palmar Interossei
    O -Side of metacarpals

    I -Extensor hoods of thumb, index, ring & little fingers and the proximal phalanx of the thumb

    In -Deep branch of Ulnar n. [C8,T1]

    F -Adduction of thumb, index, ring & little fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints
  55. Dorsal Interossei
    O -Adjacent sides of metacarpals

    I -Extensor hoods and base of proximal phalanges of index, middle & ring fingers

    In -Deep branch of Ulnar n. [C8,T1]

    F -Abduction of index, middle & ring fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints
  56. Adductor Pollicis
    O -Transverse head-metacarpal III; oblique head-capitate & bases of metacarpals II & III

    I -Base of proximal phalanx & extensor hood of thumb

    In -Deep branch of Ulnar n. [C8,T1]

    F -Adducts thumb
  57. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    O -Pisiform, the pisohamate ligament & tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris

    I -Proximal phalanx of little finger

    In -Deep branch of Ulnar n. [C8,T1]

    F -Abducts little finger at metacarpophalangeal joint
  58. Opponens Digiti Minimi
    O -Hook of hamate & flexor retinaculum

    I -Medial aspect of metacarpal

    In -Deep branch of Ulnar n. [C8,T1]

    F -Laterally rotates metacarpal V
  59. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
    O -Hook of hamate & flexor retinaculum

    I -Proximal phalanx of little finger

    In -Deep branch of Ulnar n. [C8,T1]

    F -Flexes little finger at metacarpophalangeal joint
  60. Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    O -Tubercles of scaphoid & trapezium & adjacent flexor retinaculum

    I -Proximal phalanx & extensor hood of thumb

    In -Recurrent branch of Median n. [C8,T1]

    F -Abducts thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint
  61. Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    O -Tubercle of trapezium & flexor retinaculum

    I -Proximal phalanx of thumb

    In -Recurrent branch of Median n. [C8,T1]

    F -Flexes thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint
  62. Opponens Pollicis
    O -Tubercle of trapezium & flexor retinaculum

    I -Lateral margin & adjacent palmar surface of metacarpal I

    In -Recurrent branch of Median n. [C8,T1]

    F -Medially rotates thumb
  63. Lumbricals (4 muscles)
    O -Tendons of flexor digitorum profundus

    I -Extensor hoods of index, middle, ring & little fingers

    • In -Medial two by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve; lateral two by digital
    • branches of the median nerve

    F -Flex metacarpophalangeal joints while extending interphalangeal joints

    • 1st & 2nd (medial)
    • O -One flexor tendon and are unipennate

    • 3rd & 4th (lateral)
    • O -Two flexor tendons and are bipennate
  64. Rectus Abdominis
    O -Pubic crest, pubic tubercle & pubic symphysis

    I -Costal cartilages of ribs V to VII; xiphoid process

    In -Anterior rami of lower thoracic spinal nerves [T7-T12]

    F -Compress abdominal contents; flex vertebral column; tense abdominal wall
  65. External Oblique
    O -Muscular slips from the outer surfaces of the lower eight ribs (ribs V to XII)

    I -Lateral lip of iliac crest; aponeurosis ending in midline raphae (linea alba)

    In -Anterior rami of lower six thoracic spinal nerves [T7-T12]

    F -Compress abdominal contents; both muscles flex trunk; each muscle bends trunk to same side, turning anterior part of abdomen to opposite side
  66. Internal Oblique
    O -Thoracolumbar fascia; iliac crest between origins of external & transversus; lateral two-thirds of inguinal ligament

    I -Inferior border of the lower three or four ribs; aponeurosis ending in linea alba; pubic crest & pectineal line

    In -Anterior rami of lower six thoracic spinal nerves [T7-T12] and L1

    F -Compress abdominal contents; both muscles flex trunk; each muscle bends trunk & turns anterior part of abdomen to same side
  67. Transverse Abdominis
    O -Thoracolumbar fascia; medial lip of iliac crest; lateral one-third of inguinal ligament; costal cartilages lower six ribs (ribs VII to XII)

    I -Aponeurosis ending in linea alba; pubic crest & pectineal line

    In -Anterior rami of lower six thoracic spinal nerves [T7-T12] and L1

    F -Compress abdominal contents
  68. Quadratus Lumborum
    O -Transverse process of LV vertebra, iliolumbar ligament & iliac crest

    I -Transverse processes of LI to LIV vertebrae & inferior border of rib XII

    In -Anterior rami of T12 and L1-L4

    F -Depress & stabilize rib XII & some lateral bending of trunk
  69. Pyramidalis
    O -Front of pubis & pubic symphysis

    I -Into linea alba

    In -Anterior ramus of T12

    F -Tenses the linea alba
  70. Piriformis
    O -Anterior surface of sacrum between anterior sacral foramina

    I -Medial side of superior border of greater trochanter of femur

    In -Branches of L5,S1,S2

    F -Laterally rotates the extended femur at hip joint; abducts flexed femur at hip joint
  71. Gemellus Superior
    O -External surface of ischial spine

    I -Along length of superior surface of the obturator internus tendon & into the medial side of greater trochanter of femur with obturator internus tendon

    In -Nerve to Obturator Internus [L5,S1]

    F -Laterally rotates the extended femur at hip joint; abducts flexed femur at hip joint
  72. Obturator Internus
    O -Anterolateral wall of pelvis; deep surface of obturator membrane & surrounding bone

    I -Medial side of greater trochanter of femur

    In -Nerve to Obturator Internus [L5,S1]

    F -Laterally rotates the extended femur at hip joint; abducts flexed femur at hip joint
  73. Gemellus Inferior
    O -Upper aspect of ischial tuberosity

    I -Along length of inferior surface of the obturator internus tendon & into the medial side of greater trochanter of femur with obturator internus tendon

    In -Nerve to Quadratus Femoris [L5,S1]

    F -Laterally rotates the extended femur at hip joint; abducts flexed femur at hip joint
  74. Quadratus Femoris
    O -Lateral aspect of the ischium just anterior to the ischial tuberosity

    I -Quadrate tubercle on the intertrochanteric crest of the proximal femur

    In -Nerve to Quadratus Femoris [L5,S1]

    F -Laterally rotates femur at hip joint
  75. Tensor Fasciae Latae
    O -Lateral aspect of crest of ilium between anterior superior iliac spine & tubercle of the crest

    I -Iliotibial tract of fascia lata

    In -Superior gluteal n. [L4,L5,S1]

    F -Stabilizes the knee in extension
  76. Gluteus Medius
    O -External surface of ilium between anterior & posterior gluteal lines

    I - Elongate facet on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter

    In -Superior gluteal n. [L4,L5,S1]

    F -Abducts femur at hip joint; hold pelvis secure over stance leg & prevents pelvic drop on the opposite swing side during walking; medially rotates thigh
  77. Gluteus Minimus
    O -External surface of ilium between inferior & anterior gluteal lines

    I -Linear facet on anterolateral aspect of greater trochanter

    In -Superior gluteal nerve [L4,L5,S1]

    F -Abducts femur at hip joint; holds pelvis secure over stance leg & prevents pelvic drop on the opposite swing side during walking; meidally rotates thigh
  78. Gluteus Maximus
    O -Fascia covering gluteus medius, external surface of ilium behind posterior gluteal line, fascia of erector spinae, dorsal surface of lower sacrum, lateral margin of coccyx, external surface of sacrotuberous ligament

    I -Posterior aspect of iliotibial tract of fascia lata & gluteal tuberosity of proximal femur

    In -Inferior gluteal nerve [L5,S1,S2]

    F -Powerful extensor of flexed femur at hip joint; lateral stabilizer of hip joint & knee joint; laterally rotates & abducts thigh
  79. Biceps Femoris
    O -Long head-inferomedial part of upper area of ischial tuberosity; short head-lateral lip of linea aspera

    I -Head of fibula

    In -Long head-tibial division of Sciatic n.; short head-common fibular division of Sciatic n. [L5,S1,S2]

    F -Flexes leg at knee joint; extends & laterally rotates thigh at hip joint & laterally rotates leg at knee joint
  80. Semitendinosus
    O -Inferomedial part of upper area of ischial tuberosity

    I -Medial surface of proximal tibia

    In -Tibial division of Sciatic n. [L5,S1,S2]

    F -Flexes leg at knee joint & extends thigh at hip joint; medially rotates thigh at hip joint & leg at knee joint
  81. Semimembranosus
    O -Superolateral impression on ischial tuberosity

    I -Groove & adjacent bone on medial & posterior surface of medial tibial condyle

    In -Tibial division of Sciatic n. [L5,S1,S2]

    F -Flexes leg at knee joint & extends thigh at hip joint; medially rotates thigh at hip joint & leg at knee joint
  82. Iliacus
    O -Posterior abdominal wall (iliac fossa)

    I -Lesser trochanter of femur

    In -Femoral nerve [L2, L3]

    F -Flexes the thigh at the hip joint
  83. Psoas Major
    O -Posterior abdominal wall (lumbar transverse processes, intervertebral discs, and adjacent bodies from TXII to LV and tendinous arches between these points)

    I -Lesser trochanter of femur

    In -Anterior rami [L1, L2, L3]

    F -Flexes the thigh at the hip joint
  84. Vastus Intermedius
    O -Femur-upper two-thirds of anterior and lateral surfaces

    I -Quadriceps femoris tendon and lateral margin of patella

    In -Femoral nerve [L2, L3, L4]

    F -Extends the leg at the knee joint
  85. Vastus Medialis
    O -Femur-medial part of intertrochanteric line, pectineal line, medial lip of the linea aspera, medial supracondylar line

    I -Quadriceps femoris tendon and medial border of patella

    In -Femoral nerve [L2, L3, L4]

    F -Extends the leg at the knee joint
  86. Vastus Lateralis
    O -Femur-lateral part of intertrochanteric line, margin of greater trochanter, lateral margin of gluteal tuberosity, lateral lip of the linea aspera

    I -Quadriceps femoris tendon

    In -Femoral nerve [L2, L3, L4]

    F -Extends the leg at the knee joint
  87. Sartorius
    O -Anterior superior iliac spine

    I -Medial surface of tibia just inferomedial to tibial tuberosity

    In -Femoral nerve [L2, L3]

    F -Flexes the thigh at the hip joint and flexes the leg at the knee joint; abducts and laterally rotates thigh
  88. Rectus Femoris
    O -Straight head originates from the anterior inferior iliac spine; reflected head originates from the ilium just superior to the acetabulum

    I -Quadriceps femoris tendon

    In -Femoral nerve [L2, L3, L4]

    F -Flexes the thigh at the hip joint and extends the leg at the knee joint
  89. Gracilis
    O -A line on the external surfaces of the body of the pubis, the inferior pubic ramus, and the ramus of the ischium

    I -Medial surface of proximal shaft of tibia

    In -Obturator nerve [L2, L3]

    F -Adducts thigh at hip joint and flexes leg at knee joint
  90. Adductor Brevis
    O -External surface of body of pubis and inferior pubic ramus

    I -Posterior surface of proximal femur and upper one-third of linea aspera

    In -Obturator nerve [L2, L3]

    F -Adducts thigh at hip joint
  91. Pectineus
    O -Pectineal line (pecten pubis) and adjacent bone of pelvis

    I -Oblique line extending from base of lesser trochanter to linea aspera on posterior surface of proximal femur

    In -Femoral nerve [L2, L3]

    F -Adducts and flexes thigh at hip joint
  92. Adductor Longus
    O -External surface of body of pubis (triangular depression inferior to pubic crest and lateral to pubic symphysis)

    I -Linea aspera on middle one-third of shaft of femur

    In -Obturator nerve (anterior division) [L2, L3, L4]

    F -Adducts and medially rotates thigh at hip joint
  93. Adductor Magnus
    • O -Adductor part-ischiopubic ramus;
    • -Hamstring part-ischial tuberosity

    • I -Posterior surface of proximal femur, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line;
    • -Adductor tubercle and supracondylar line

    • In -Obturator nerve [L2, L3, L4];
    • -Sciatic nerve (tibial division) [L2, L3, L4]

    F -Adducts and medially rotates thigh at hip joint
  94. Obturator Externus
    O -External surface of obturator membrane and adjacent bone

    I -Trochanteric fossa

    In -Obturator nerve (posterior division) [L3, L4]

    F -Laterally rotates thigh at hip joint
  95. Gastrocnemius
    • O -Medial head-posterior surface of distal femur just superior to medial condyle;
    • -Lateral head-upper posterolateral surface of lateral femoral condyle

    I -Via calcaneal tendon, to posterior surface of calcaneus

    In -Tibial nerve [S1, S2]

    F -Plantarflexes foot and flexes knee
  96. Plantaris
    O -Inferior part of lateral supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligament of knee

    I -Via calcaneal tendon, to posterior surface of calcaneus

    In -Tibial nerve [S1, S2]

    F -Plantarflexes foot and flexes knee
  97. Soleus
    O -Soleal line and medial border of tibia; posterior aspect of fibular head and adjacent surfaces of neck and proximal shaft; tendinous arch between tibial and fibular attachments

    I -Via calcaneal tendon, to posterior surface of calcaneus

    In -Tibial nerve [S1, S2]

    F -Plantarflexes the foot
  98. Popliteus
    O -Lateral femoral condyle

    I -Posterior surface of proximal tibia

    In -Tibial nerve [L4-S1]

    • F -Stabilizes knee joint (resists lateral rotation of tibia on femur)
    • - Unlocks knee joint (laterally rotates femur on fixed tibia)
  99. Flexor Hallucis Longus
    O -Posterior surface of fibula and adjacent interosseous membrane

    I -Plantar surface of distal phalanx of great toe

    In -Tibial nerve [S2, S3]

    F -Flexes great toe
  100. Flexor Digitorum Longus
    O -Medial side of posterior surface of the tibia

    I -Plantar surfaces of bases of distal phalanges of the lateral four toes

    In -Tibial nerve [S2, S3]

    F -Flexes lateral four toes
  101. Tibialis Posterior
    O -Posterior surfaces of interosseous membrane and adjacent regions of tibia and fibula

    I -Mainly to tuberosity of navicular and adjacent region of medial cuneiform

    In -Tibial nerve [L4, L5]

    F -Inversion and plantarflexion of foot; support of medial arch of foot during walking
  102. Fibularis Longus
    O -Upper lateral surface of fibula, head of fibula, and occasionally the lateral tibial condyle

    I -Undersurface of lateral sides of distal end of medial cuneiform and base of metatarsal I

    In -Superficial fibular nerve [L5, S1, S2]

    F -Eversion and plantarflexion of foot; supports arches of foot
  103. Tibialis Anterior
    O -Lateral surface of tibia and adjacent interosseous membrane

    I -Medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and adjacent surfaces on base of metatarsal I

    In -Deep fibular nerve [L4, L5]

    F -Dorsiflexion of foot at ankle joint; inversion of foot; dynamic support of medial arch of foot
  104. Fibularis Brevis
    O -Lower two-thirds of lateral surface of shaft of fibula

    I -Lateral tubercle at base of metatarsal V

    In -Superficial fibular nerve [L5, S1, S2]

    F -Eversion of foot
  105. Extensor Hallucis Longus
    O -Middle one-half of medial surface of fibula and adjacent surface of interosseous membrane

    I -Dorsal surface of base of distal phalanx of great toe

    In -Deep fibular nerve [L5, S1]

    F -Extension of great toe and dorsiflexion of foot
  106. Fibularis Tertius
    O -Distal part of medial surface of fibula

    I -Dorsomedial surface of base of metatarsal V

    In -Deep fibular nerve [L5, S1]

    F -Dorsiflexion and eversion of foot
  107. Extensor Digitorum Longus
    O -Proximal one-half of medial surface of fibula and related surface of lateral tibial condyle

    I -Via dorsal digital expansions into bases of distal and middle phalanges of lateral four toes

    In -Deep fibular nerve [L5, S1]

    F -Extension of lateral four toes and dorsiflexion of foot
  108. Extensor Digitorum Brevis
    O -Superolateral surface of the calcaneus

    I -Base of proximal phalanx of great toe and lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes II to IV

    In -Deep fibular nerve [S1, S2]

    F -Extension of metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe and extension of toes II to IV
  109. Abductor Hallucis
    O -Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity

    I -Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe

    In -Medial plantar nerve from the tibial nerve [S1, S2, S3]

    F -Abducts and flexes great toe at metatarsophalangeal joint
  110. Flexor Digitorum Brevis
    O -Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity and plantar aponeurosis

    I -Sides of plantar surface of middle phalanges of lateral four toes

    In -Medial plantar nerve from the tibial nerve [S1, S2, S3]

    F -Flexes lateral four toes at proximal interphalangeal joint
  111. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    O -Lateral and medial processes of calcaneal tuberosity, and band of connective tissue connecting calcaneus with base of metatarsal V

    I -Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of little toe

    In -Lateral plantar nerve from the tibial nerve [S1, S2, S3]

    F -Abducts little toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint
  112. Quadratus Plantae
    O -Medial surface of calcaneus and lateral process of calcaneal tuberosity

    I -Lateral side of tendon of flexor digitorum longus in proximal sole of the foot

    In -Lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve [S1, S2, S3]

    F -Assists flexor digitorum longus tendon in flexing toes II to V
  113. Lumbricals
    • O -First lumbrical-medial side of tendon of flexor digitorum longus associated with toe II;
    • -Second, third, and fourth lumbricals-adjacent surfaces of adjacent tendons of flexor digitorum longus

    I -Medial free margins of extensor hoods of toes II to V

    • In -First lumbrical-medial plantar nerve from the tibial nerve;
    • -Second, third, and fourth lumbricals-lateral plantar nerve from the tibial nerve [S2, S3]

    F -Flexion of metatarsophalangeal joint and extension of interphalangeal joints
  114. Flexor Hallucis Brevis
    O -Plantar surface of cuboid and lateral cuneiform; tendon of tibialis posterior

    I -Lateral and medial sides of base of proximal phalanx of the great toe

    In -Medial plantar nerve from tibial nerve [S1, S2]

    F -Flexes metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe
  115. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
    O -Base of metatarsal V and related sheath of fibularis longus tendon

    I -Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of little toe

    In -Lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve [S2, S3]

    F -Flexes little toe at metatarsophalangeal joint
  116. Adductor Hallucis
    • O -Transverse head-ligaments associated with metatarsophalangeal joints of lateral three toes;
    • - Oblique head-bases of metatarsals II to IV and from sheath covering fibularis longus

    I -Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe

    In -Lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve [S2, S3]

    F -Adducts great toe at metatarsophalangeal joint
  117. Dorsal Interossei
    O -Sides of adjacent metatarsals

    I -Extensor hoods and bases of proximal phalanges of toes II to IV

    • In -Lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve;
    • -First and second dorsal interossei also innervated by deep fibular nerve [S2, S3]

    F -Abduction of toes II to IV at metatarsophalangeal joints; resist extension of metatarsophalangeal joints and flexion of interphalangeal joints
  118. Plantar Interossei
    O -Medial sides of metatarsals of toes III to V

    I -Extensor hoods and bases of proximal phalanges of toes III to V

    In -Lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve [S2, S3]

    F -Adduction of toes III to V at metatarsophalangeal joints; resist extension of the metatarsophalangeal joints and flexion of the interphalangeal joints

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