optics

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  1. as the muscles of the eyes contract what happens to the power of the eye's lens?
    increases
  2. when eye is focused on distant object, the image will appear
    at the focal point since (1/o=0)
  3. when the eye is focused where does the image fall?
    on the retina
  4. when power increases what happens to the focal length?
    decreases
  5. what is hyperopia and how do we correct it?
    • farsightedness, occurs when lens is too weak (can't contract and focus image on retina) or when retina is too close to the lens
    • cannot see nearby objects (corrective converging lens needed to increase in power)
  6. how does wearing glasses correct the lens?
    power of the resulting lens from the combination of eye and lens
  7. causal explanation
    • assertion of a cause and effect relationship
    • because the left lobe controls speech and understanding, left hand people who switch hands develop stutter
  8. ethical justification
    • what should be true
    • people should not be unjustly discriminated because it violates their human rights
  9. assertion about evidence
    • something you take for basis of knowledge
    • we know he was at the scene of the crime, because his fingerprints were there
  10. how are peptide bonds formed
    when lone pair electrons on amino terminus attack the carbonyl carbon of incoming amino acid
  11. what are L and D amino acids?
    • stereoisomers, optically active, all amino acids have except glycine
    • all living cells use L-amino acids
    • enantiomers so all properties are the same except optical activity
  12. what is the effective nuclear charge
    • net positive charge experienced by valence electrons
    • Zeff =Z-S 
    • Z is the atomic number
    • S is the number of shielding electrons
    • large Zeff, high electronegativity
    • electrons in s orbital feel a greater effective nuclear charge than electrons in p orbital
  13. ionization energy
    • energy to remove an electron
    • easier in oxygen because of paired electron in p orbital, which creates electron electron repulsion, weakens the bond
  14. nitrile
    C triple bonded to N
  15. aryl
    aromatic ring
  16. grignard reaction
    alkyl, aryl MgBr (good nucleophile) which attacks carbonyl groups of ketones or aldehydes and forms C-C groups
  17. what happens to the convergence of light in people with myopia, nearsightedness?
    light converges at too short of a distance, causing things far away to converge in front of retina
  18. what happens to the ciliary muscle when focusing on a distance object?
    • it relaxes
    • the focal length of cornea (first converging lens) is constant, the second crystalline lens is controlled by relaxing and tensing of ciliary muscle. two lens acts as one
  19. when the ciliary muscle is tensed what happens to the shape of the lens and focal length
    • is spherical, causes decrease in focal length
    • when relaxed, increase in focal length. cannot relax sufficiently in people with myopia
  20. how can myopia be corrected? with what kind of lens and how?
    • with a diverging lens (concave), the light is diverged before it reaches cornea where it can be converged on the retina
    • convex lens (converging) used to fix hyperopia
  21. what is true of an image formed on the retina
    • reduced, b/c retina is small
    • object is at greater than focal length (less would be not real image)
    • object
    • inverted (all real image formed by converging lens is inverted)
  22. anomers
    differ in their conformation at the anomeric carbon (difference between alpha and beta group)
  23. hemiacetal
    aldehyde with one OH group, one OR, one R and one H
  24. acetal/ketal
    2OR, 2 R
  25. difference between anomer and enantiomers
    anomers differ at one chiral carbon, enantiomers differ at all chiral carbons
  26. what is a pyranose
    5 C and 1 O (forms 6 membered ring)
  27. furanose
    • 5 membered ring with 4C and 1O
    • glucose can take either furanose or pyranose form
  28. disulfide bonds
    • covalent bonds between two thiol (R-SH) groups
    • disulfide occur between two cysteine amino acids which forms cystine
  29. acyl halide
    carboxylic acid with halide instead of OH
  30. oxoacid
    acid with oxygen
  31. what would form with acyl halide and primary alcohol
    ester
  32. what kind of bonds hold monosaccharides together?
    glycosidic bonds covalent
  33. monosaccharides
    simplest form of carbohydrate (one glucose molecule)
  34. 14C how many neutrons and how many protons?
    14 protons=number of protons and neutrons, since it is C then it has 6 protons, 8 neutrons
  35. equilibrium constant greater than 1
    means that mixture contains mostly products, reaction occurs spontaneously
  36. oxidation number of nitrogen
    -3
  37. oxidation number of oxygen in peroxide
    -1
  38. artery
    from heart to all other parts of the body (carries oxygenated blood)
  39. intramolecular hydrogen bond characteristics
    when the molecule can hydrogen bond internally b/c of proximity of functional groups, decrease in melting point and decrease in solubility (cannot form H bond with water as effectively)
  40. gabriel synthesis
    • transforms primary alkyl halides to primary amines
    • requires base, OH- attacks H on imide, followed by nucleophilic attack on halide, complete with hydrolysis
  41. strecker synthesis
    form amino acids from aldehyde or ketone via nitrile, need KCN, NH4Cl, and H
  42. good indicator changes when
    • at the equivalence point where moles of acid added is equal to moles of base
    • indicator changes color when pH =pKa
  43. b12 is bound to protein by what kind of bonds
    hydrogen, since passage states that stomach acid denatures it
  44. what is the function of dideoxynucleotides
    • chain terminators 
    • doesn't have OH at 3', has H
  45. characteristics of peptide bonds
    low reactivity and planar geometry b/c of resonance,
  46. transpeptidases
    involved in bacterial wall biosynthesis, cross links peptide side chains
  47. alcohol dehydrogenase
    • break down ethanol, product of fermentation in yeast
    • during a dive, reduced metabolism, reduced access to oxygen convert to anaerobic metabolism
  48. function of voltmeter
    measuring electrical potential difference btw two points (as in between 2 resistors)
  49. what does the buoyant force equal?
    • weight of the displaced fluid
    • (p fluid)(Vobj sub) g
    • denser object sinks until Fg=Fb
  50. a non sinking boat displaces what which is constant?
    • mass displaced is constant
    • volume submerged changes depending on the density of the fluid
  51. what happens to the buoyant force when you dive deeper
    • gets higher, because density of fluid increases due to increase in pressure pgz
    • you can decrease air you carry to decrease buoyant force
  52. piaget's stages of cognitive development
    • 0-2 sensorimotor: perceive the world using senses (object permanence, things continue to exist even when it is not seen)
    • 2-7 preoperational: egocentric, objects can be shown with symbols, learn to speak
    • 7-11 concrete operational: things in different shapes are the same (conservation)
    • 12 formal operational: learn to reason based on morals, abstract ideas
  53. cognitive development
    learn to understand concepts and to think for oneself
  54. Schachter Singer theory on emotion
    need the physical arousal in addition to cognitive recognition of that arousal to cause emotion
  55. cannon bard theory of emotion
    • emotions result from stimulation of dorsal thalamus
    • physiological stimulus is separate and independent; arousal does not have to occur before an emotion
  56. cognitive behavior therapy
    • disorder caused by interactions between thoughts and behaviors and will try to correct the patient's pattern of thoughts
    • by taking her to the mall and challenging her her belief that she will not be able to escape
  57. difference between shaping and extinction of behaviors in operant conditioning
    • shaping: increasingly more specific behaviors
    • extinction: when previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced
  58. social loafing
    individual in group works less than when working alone
  59. group polarization
    • tendency of the group as a whole to make more extreme decisions
    • risky shift: if initial position is aggressive, the final position is more aggressive
    • cautious shift: if the initial position is conservative, more conservative
  60. social cognitive theory
    • based on people changing based on observation
    • lower weight =more success, so the person trying to lose weight want to appear more successful
  61. self-selection bias
    individuals select themselves into groups
  62. self-serving bias
    positive attributes to themselves, neg to the environment
  63. ethnic groups moving to a more industrialized culture has what kind of mortality and fertility rates
    high, high
  64. conflict theories
    • refers to large marginalized group or objection to a dominant cultural norm
    • one religion into education, alienating 25% of people of other religions
  65. shift in signal detection
    alarm goes off, and because we're so used to it, we no longer respond to it
  66. weber's method of discrimination
    comparison/differentiating between two quantities
  67. serotonin affects what?
    • sleep
    • mood
    • appetite
  68. behaviorist perspective of personality/behavior
    behavior is based upon reinforcement and punishment
  69. psychoanalytic perspective of behavior
    unconscious desires of the thrill seeker
  70. what gives validity for social environment metrics/validate the different groups
    need to have a question that can be compared among the different groups
  71. dissociative disorder
    those afflicted moves to a state where they remove themselves from the painful memories

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Author:
xijunzhu
ID:
317857
Filename:
optics
Updated:
2016-03-25 15:25:27
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