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substances in blood plasma become enclosed within tiny pinocytic vesicles that first enter endothelial cells by endocytosis, then move across the cell and exit on the other side by exocytosis.
a passive process in which large numbers of ions, molecules, or particles in a fluid move together in the same direction
Pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes from blood capillaries into interstitial fluid
Pressure-driven movement frominterstitial fluid into blood capillaries
the volume of blood that flows through any tissue in a given time period
cardiac output (CO), the volume of blood that circulates through systemic (or pulmonary) blood vessels each minute
factors affecting blood flow
2 ways to calculate cardiac output
(1) the pressure difference that drives the blood flow through a tissue and (2) the resistance to blood flow in specific blood vessels.
is the opposition to blood flow due to friction between blood and the walls of blood vessels.
3 factors affect vascular resistance
- 1.) Size of the lumen
- 2.) Blood viscosity
- 3.) Total blood vessel length
the volume of blood flowing back to the heart through the systemic veins, occurs due to the pressure generated by contractions of the heart's left ventricle
2.) leg muscle contractions
3.) muscle relaxation
3 factors assist in venous return