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  1. alpha, beta and gamma decay
    • alpha (helium nucleus released, 4, 2)
    • beta (electron released, 0, -1)
    • gamma (high energy photon, 0,0)
  2. hydrostatic pressure
    • pressure fluid exerts on the walls of its container
    • ex. force of blood on the blood vessels
  3. osmotic pressure
    • pressure needed to prevent the flow of fluid across semipermeable membrane via osmosis
    • oncotic pressure: exerted by proteins like albumin
  4. net filtration pressure
    difference between net hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
  5. at the arterial end of the capillary, what direction is the net flow of fluid?
    positive net filtration pressure, movement of fluid from capillary (blood) to interstitial space because capillary hydrostatic pressure is greater than blood colloid osmotic pressure
  6. at the venule end of the capillary, what direction is the net flow of fluid?
    • into the blood, because of greater oncotic pressure than hydrostatic pressure of capillary
    • negative net filtration
  7. is blood pressure greater in the systemic or pulmonary circulation?
    • greater in the systemic circulation b/c its length is greater than pulmonary, hence greater resistance R=pL/A, greater blood pressure
    • in addition, left ventricle which feeds the systemic circulation P=F/A has greater force than right ventricle (pulmonary circulation)
  8. systemic circulation
    carries oxygen rich blood from the left atrium of the heart (right side) to tissues and returns oxygen poor blood to the right atrium via the superior and inferior venae cavae
  9. pulmonary circulation
    • carries oxygen poor blood from the heart through pulmonary trunk to the lungs for gas exchange
    • carries oxygen rich blood to the left atrium of the heart
  10. what happens at the pulmonary capillaries
    CO2 exchanged for O2. O2 rich blood flows through pulmonary veins to the left atrium
  11. pulmonary artery function
    transport oxygen poor blood to the lungs
  12. how does the blood flow rate compare between systemic and pulmonary circulation
    the same, since they are connected in series, the flow rate (analogous to current) is the same
  13. ischemia
    restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing shortage of oxygen to tissues. as a result of problems with blood vessels, damage to organs
  14. what is the charge of an electron?
    1.6 x 10^-19
  15. for an incompressible fluid what remains the same
    volume (Area *d)
  16. compared to sound waves at the tympanic membrane, the intensity felt by fluid that induces depolarization of the stereo cilia is?
    • I=Power/A
    • since the area of the stapes is smaller, intensity will be greater at stapes (pushing on the fluid)
  17. if tympanic membrane and ossicles were to be removed what happens to rodents?
    • less sensitive to sounds
    • intensity increases as waves travel through the ear (decrease in area), hence rodent will not be able to hear well
  18. what is the wavelength of pipe with one closed end?
    • wavelength=4L/n
    • n= harmonics (1,3,5)
    • third highest resonant is 5 (4L/5), the resonant is 0.8 of the length
  19. mutarotation
    change in optical rotation because of change in equilibrium between two anomers (ex. cyclic sugars interconvert between alpha and beta forms, need hemiacetal/ketal group to do this)
  20. specific rotation in terms of observed rotation?
    • observed rotation/(conc of product)(length of tube)
    • when concentration of produce decrease (less product), observed rotation decreased
    • but specific rotation remains the same
  21. five membered fructose ring, 6 membered glucose ring
    • fructofuranoside
    • glucopyranoside
  22. acetyl
    carbonyl with one methyl group
  23. what is the rate of the reaction proportional to?
    the slowest step. In the passage the slowest step is the breakdown of ES, hence the rate of the reaction is proportional to amount of ES present
  24. when glucose is oxidized in Fehling's reaction, how is the equilibrium of the hemiacetal D-glucose and linear D-glucose shifted?
    • linear form is favored since linear can be oxidized
    • as the linear form gets consumed, equilibrium shifted to produce more linear form
  25. steps to forming a disaccharide
    • 1. protonation of OH of one of the sugars (form H2O)
    • 2. OH (4)  from the other sugar attacks
    • 3. H2O leaves, and bond is formed
    • 4. Excess H leaves
  26. Kw
    • auto ionization of water H2O to H+ and OH-
    • greater the heat, greater Kw
    • the only thing that changes equilibrium constant is a change in temperature
  27. common ion effect
    • reduction in molar solubility of an ionic precipitate when one of its ions is in solution
    • molar solubility: amount of solute dissolved per liter of solution, Ksp does not change
  28. solubility of gases and non gaseous solutes with temperature
    • solubility of nongaseous solute increases with increase in temp, solubility of gaseous solute decreases with increase in temp
    • body temp is greater than 25C
  29. why does glucose not dissociate in solution
    it is covalently bonded
  30. phosphoric acid formula
  31. amine
    NH2 electron donating
  32. oxidation of what kind of alcohol will lead to ketone
  33. what is an alkanoyl halide? like ethanoyl chloride?
    acyl (from carboxylic acid) group with chloride
  34. PCC
    primary alcohol to aldehyde without further oxidation to carboxylic acid
  35. at neutral pH, what are the charges on amino acids
    carboxyl group (neg), amino group (pos)
  36. when placed in an electric field, what kind of charge will move to the cathode?
  37. cathode and anode of a battery (discharging) and galvanic cells
    • red cat
    • cathode is positive, anode is neg
  38. cathode and electrode of charging system, and electrophoresis
    reversed, cathode is neg, anode is positive, but the reaction at anode is always oxidation, and cathode is reduction
  39. differences in energy conversion between galvanic and electrolytic cell
    • galvanic cells converts chemical to electrical energy
    • electrolytic converts electrical to chemical
  40. how strong is the acid of a stable conjugate base
    stronger the acid
  41. how are hemiketals formed?
    addition of nucleophillic OH (from alcohol) group to ketone carbonyl
  42. D/L designations in stereoisomers
    • D rotates plane polarized light clockwise (dexter, right)
    • L rotates plane polarized light counterclockwise (levo, left)
  43. trypsin usually cleaves what kind of amino acid?
    basic (positive charge)
  44. chymotrypsin usually cleaves what kind of amino acid
    large hydrophobic ones like aromatic compounds
  45. patronize
    treat with apparent kindness that betrays a feeling of superiority
  46. what happens when there is a relaxation of arteries?
    • heat loss
    • increase in arterial blood volume and decrease in blood pressure
    • decrease in venous volume (pulled into arterial side)
  47. what is the difference between diffusion and osmosis?
    • diffusion movement across the membrane of a solute
    • osmosis movement across the membrane of a solvent
  48. facilitated diffusion
    • requires a carrier molecule or pore (passive)
    • ion channel
  49. x linked recessive disease
    usually occurs in males: one copy of that gene will cause the disease in males
  50. mitosis
    for growth and repair in somatic cells
  51. pyruvate decarboxylase
    pyruvate to ethanol and carbon-dioxide in fermentation
  52. complete penetrance
    trait expressed in all population with the gene
  53. active site is part of what kind of structure of an enzyme?
  54. what does it mean when an enzyme is monomeric?
    one chain, no quaternary structure
  55. commensalism
    one species benefit while the other neither
  56. cecum
    pouch connected to the junction between the large and small intestine
  57. where do bacteria inhabit in the body?
  58. facultative vs. obligate anaerobes
    • facultative organisms can make ATP in the presence or absence of oxygen
    • obligate organisms are poisoned by oxygen
    • obligate aerobe make ATP in the presence of oxygen
  59. function of primase
    synthesizes primers
  60. an unfixed double strand break that occurs at which point in the cell cycle will most likely affect both chromatids in a pair of sister chromatids?
    G1, because it occurs before replication
  61. how does metaphase align chromosomes in the middle of the plate?
    using spindle apparatus to attach to kinetochore fibers
  62. silent mutation
    results in same amino acid
  63. difference btw epimers and anomer
    • epimer differ at any one stereo center
    • anomer differ at anomeric carbon
  64. which limb in the loop of henle is permeable to water?
    descending limb
  65. function of aldosterone
    works to increase salt reabsorption in the cortical collecting duct
  66. types 1 diabetes occurs b/c
    of destruction of beta cells in the islet of Langerhans of the pancreas
  67. induction in development
    the presence of one tissue affects the development of others
  68. transfection vs. transduction vs. transformation
    • transformation: naturally DNA is incorporated via membrane (temp change)
    • transfection: introducing nucleic acids in cells sonification, nano pipette)
    • transduction: virus mediated DNA transfer (using host cell machinery)
  69. a scientist wants to study the location of viral synthesis what method should he use?
    autoradiography, radioactively label amino acids and then localize their activity
  70. why is the mitochondria DNA primarily derived from the mother?
    following penetration, sperm derived mitochondria disintegrate

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full length 2
2016-03-29 21:46:32

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