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2010-08-29 23:18:33
Med Term Body cavities

Med Term Body cavities
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  1. What is the meaning of Dorsal & Ventral
    • Dorsal - back cavity
    • Ventral - front cavity
  2. What are the subdivisions of the Dorsal cavity? (2)
    • Cranial which contains the brain
    • Spinal which contains the spinal cord
  3. What are the subdivisions of the Ventral cavity? (3)
    • Thoracic which contains the heart, lungs, aorta, trachea, and the esophagus
    • Abdominal which contains the stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, large and small intestines, pancreas, and gallbladder
    • Pelvic whih contains the bladder, urethra, and reproductive organs
  4. Which two subdivions are frequently referred to as one?
    The abdominal and pelvic cavity, called the abdominopelvic cavity
  5. What is the anatomical position?
    The body standing erect, arms at side, with head, palms, and feet facing forward.
  6. Superior or cranial
    • above; toward the head
    • Example: the head is superior to the neck. Cranial nerves originate in the head.
  7. Opposites
    Superior & Inferior
    • Superior- Above; toward the head
    • Inferior- Below; toward the lower end of the body or tail
  8. Anterior/Ventral
    • Front surface of the body; belly side of the body
    • Example: the thoracic cavity is anterior to the spinal cavity
  9. Opposites
    • Anterior- Front surface of the body; the belly side of the body.
    • Posterior- Back surface of the body
  10. Medial
    • Medial- toward midline (the midline is an imaginary line drawn down the ceter othe body from the top of the heax to the feet)
    • Example: the big toe is medial to the small toe
  11. Lateral
    • Away from the midline (the midline is an imaginary line drawn down the ceter othe body from the top of the head to the feet)
    • Example: the small toe is lateral to the big toe
  12. Posterior/Dorsal
    • Back surface of the body
    • Example: the spinal cavity is posterior to the thoracic cavity.
  13. Inferior/Caudal
    • Below; toward the lower end of the body or tail
    • Example: the neck is inferior to the head.
    • Caudal anesthesia is injected in the lower spine.
  14. Opposites
    • Medial- Toward the midline
    • Lateral- Away from the midline
  15. Proximal
    • 1. Nearest the point of attachment to the trunk (NOTE: this definition is used primarily to describe directions on the arm and legs)
    • Example 1: The elbow is proximal to the wrist, and the wrist is proximal to the fingers.
    • 2. Toward the point of origin. (NOTE: this definition is used primarily to describe directions pertaining to the digestive tract, with the mouth as the point of origin.)
    • Example 2: the stomach is proximal to the intestines.
  16. Distal
    • Farthest from the point of attachment to the trunk; farthest from the point of origin.
    • Example: the knee is distal to the hip, and he ankel is distal from the knee. The intestines are distal to the stomach, and the stomach is distal to the throat.
  17. Opposites
    • Proximal- nearest the point of attachment to the trunk OR toward the point of origin (when describing the digestive tract)
    • Distal- farthest from the point of attachment to the trunk; farthest from the point of origin.
  18. Superficial
    • definition: near the surface of the body
    • Example: the skin is superficial to underlying organs.
  19. Deep
    • Definition: away from the surface o the body
    • Example: muscles are deep to the skin.
  20. Opposites
    • Superficial: near the surface of the body
    • Deep: away from the surface of the body.
  21. Supine
    • Definition: lying on back, face up
    • NOTE: in relation to the arms, supine means the palms are facing toward the front.
    • Example: during an operation, the patient may be placed in the supine position.
    • *remember supine has the word up in it.
  22. Prone
    • Definition: lying on the abdomen, face down
    • NOTE: in relation to the arms, prone means the palms are facing toward the back
    • Example: during an operation, the patient may be placed in the prone position.
  23. Opposites
    • Supine: lying on back, face up
    • Prone: lying on the abdomen, face down
  24. Plantar
    • Definition: sole of the foot
    • Example: plantar warts are on the sole of the foot
  25. Dorsum
    Upper portion of the foot
  26. Opposites
    • Plantar: sole of the foot
    • Dorsum: upperportion of the foot
  27. Peripheral
    • Definition: away from the center
    • Example: peripheral nerves are the nerves away from the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral blood vessels are in the extremities.
  28. What are the abdominopelvic regions? (9)
    • Top:
    • Right Hypochondriac Region
    • Epigastric
    • Left Hypochondriac Region
    • Middle:
    • Right Lumbar Region
    • Umbilical Region
    • Left Lumbar Region
    • Bottom:
    • Right Iliac
    • Hypogastric
    • Left Iliac
  29. What are the names and abbreviations of the abdominopelvic quadrants? (4)
    Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ); Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ); Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ); Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
  30. Frontal/Coronal Plane
    Definition: separates a structure into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
  31. Sagittal Plane
    Midsagittal Plane
    • Definition: separates a structure into right and left sides
    • NOTE: if the sagittal section divides the body into equal portions, it is called a midsagittal section
  32. Anter/o
    • 1. Front
    • 2. Pertaining to the front of the body or organ.
  33. Caud/o
    • 1. Tail
    • 2. Pertaining to the tail; toward the tail
  34. Dors/o
    • 1. Back
    • 2. Pertaining to the back
  35. Infer/o
    • 1. Below; downward
    • 2. Pertaining to below or in a downward position; a structure below another structure
  36. Inguin/o
    Inguinal (inguin/ -al)
    • 1. Groin
    • 2. Pertaining to the groin
  37. Medi/o
    • 1. Middle
    • 2. Pertaining to the middle
  38. Phren/o
    • 1. Diaphragm
    • 2. Pertaining to thw diaphragm
  39. Poster/o
    • 1. Back
    • 2. Pertaining to the back of the body or an organ.
  40. Proxim/o
    • 1. Near; close
    • 2. Pertaining to that which is near a point of reference
  41. Super/o
    • 1. Above; toward the head
    • 2. Pertaining to a structure or organ situated either above another or toward the head.
  42. Ventr/o
    Ventral (ventr/o -al)
    • 1. Front
    • 2. Pertaining to the front
  43. Epigastric (epi- gastr/o -ic)
    Definition: pertaining to upon the stomach (Refers to an abdominal region.)
  44. Hypogastric (hypo- gastr/o -ic)
    Definition: pertaining to below the stomach (Refers to an abdominal region.)
  45. Ili/o
    Iliac (ili/o -ac)
    • 1. hip
    • 2. pertaining to the hip
  46. Spin/o
    Spinal (spin/o -al)
    • 1. Spine; Spinal Column; backbone
    • 2. Pertaining to the spine
  47. Viscer/o
    Viseral (viscer/o -al)
    • 1. Internal organs
    • 2. Pertaining to the internal organs
  48. Pelv/o
    Pelvic (pelv/o -ic)
    • 1. Pelvis
    • 2. Pertaining to the pelvis
  49. Thorac/o
    Thoracic (thorac/o -ic)
    • 1. Chest; Thorax
    • 2. Pertaining to the chest
  50. Abbreviation: LLQ
    Left lower quadrant
  51. Abbreviation: LUQ
    Left upper quadrant
  52. Abbreviation: RLQ
    Right lower quadrant
  53. Abbreviaton: RUQ
    Right upper quadrant
  54. What is a summary of the epidermis?
    • Cells: epithelical; melanocytes; kerantinocytes
    • Tissue: epithelial tissue
    • Function: protection
  55. What is a summary of the dermis?
    • Cells: fibroblasts; macrophanges; mast cells; plasma cells
    • Tissue: connective tissue
    • Function: temperature regulation; sensation; secretion; nutrition; protection
  56. What is the purpose of subcutaneous tissue?
    It conects the dermis to inner structures and provides insulation.
  57. Cry/o
  58. Leuk/o
  59. Papill/o
  60. Scler/o
  61. Xer/o
  62. -ism
  63. -ium; -um
  64. -sis
    State of; condition
  65. Albin/o;
    (albin/o -ism)
    • 1. White
    • 2. Lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
  66. Adip/o
    (see also lip/o and steat/o)
    (adip/o -ose)
    • 1. Fat
    • 2. Pertaining to fat
  67. Bi/o;
    Skin Biopsy
    (bi/o -opsy)
    • 1. Life
    • 2. A piece of living tissue is removed for mircoscopic examination.
  68. Cutane/o
    (also see dermat/o and derm/o)
    (sub- cutane/o -ous)
    • 1. Skin
    • 2. Pertaining to under the skin
  69. Cyan/o;
    (cyan/o -tic)
    • 1. Blue
    • 2. Pertaining to a bluish discoloration of skin
  70. Dermatitis
    (dermat/o -itis)
    Inflammation of the skin
  71. Dermatology
    (dermat/o - logy)
    Study of the skin and its diseases
  72. Dermatologist
    (dermat/o -logist)
    One who specializes in the study of the skin and its diseases
  73. Hypodermic
    (hypo- derm/o -ic)
    Pertaining to below the skin; subcutaneous
  74. Dermatoplasty
    (dermat/o -plasty)
    Surgical reconstruction of the skin; surgical replacement of injured or diseased skin
  75. Diaphor/e;
    (diaphor/e -osis)
    • 1. Profuse sweating
    • 2. State of profuse sweating; hyperhidrosis
  76. Epitheil/o
  77. Epithelium
    (epitheli/o -um)
    Structure made up of epithelial cells covering the internal and external surfaces of the body.
  78. Epithelial
    (epitheli/o -al)
    Pertaining to the epithelium
  79. Erythemat/o;
    (erythemat/o -ous)
    • 1. Red
    • 2. Pertaining to redness of the skin.
  80. Erythr/o;
    • 1. Red
    • 2. Red discoloration to the skin; erythroderma
    • NOTE: Erythema is a noun
  81. Hidr/o;
    [a(n)- hidr/o -osis];
    (hyper- hidr/o -osis)
    • 1. Sweat
    • 2. Lack of sweat
    • 3. Excessive secretion of sweat; Diaphoresis
  82. Kerat/o;
    Hard; Hornlike
  83. Hyperkeratosis
    (hyper- kerat/o -osis)
    Excessive growth of the outer layer of skin (hornlike layer)
  84. Keratinocyte
    (keratin/o -cyte)
    Cell that produces keratin
  85. Lip/o;
    (lip/o -oma);
    (lip/o -suction)
    • 1. Fat
    • 2. Tumor or mass containing fat
    • 3. Withdrawl of fat from the subcutaneous tissue
  86. Melan/o;
    (melan/o -cyte)
    • 1. Black
    • 2. Cell that produces melanin
  87. Myc/o;
    (Dermat/o Myc/o -osis)
    • 1. Fungus
    • 2. Fungal infection of the skin
  88. Necr/o;
    Necrotic tissue
    (Necr/o -tic)
    • 1. Death
    • 2. Pertaining to death of tissue
  89. eponychium
    (Epi- onych/o -ium)
    Structure upon the nail; the cuticle
  90. onychomycosis
    (Onych/o myc/o -osis)
    Fungal infection of the nail
  91. paronychia
    (Para- Onych/o -ia)
    Inflammation of the tissue around the nail
  92. Pil/o
    (pil/o seb/o ace -ous)
    • Hair
    • Pertaining to hair follicles and sebaceous glands
  93. Py/o
    (py/o -genic)
    • Pus
    • Pus producing. For example, pyogenic bacteria produces pus.
  94. Ras/o
    (ab- ras/o -ion)
    • Scrape
    • Scraping away of the superficial layers of injured skin; for example injury from a burn
  95. Rhytid/o
    (rhytid/o -ectomy)
    • Wrinkle
    • Removal of wrinkles; facelift
  96. Seb/o
    (seb/o -rrhea)
    • Sebum
    • Increased discharge of sebum from the sebaceous glands
  97. Steat/o
    (steat/o -oma)
    • Fat
    • Fatty tumor of the sebaceous glands
  98. Ungu/o
    (peri- ungu/o -al)
    • Nail
    • Pertaining to around the nail
  99. -dermis; -derma
  100. Epidermis
    (epi- -dermis)
    Above the dermis
  101. Erytroderma
    (erythr/o -derma)
    Redness of the skin; erythema
  102. Leukoderma
    (leuk/o -derma)
    Lack of pigmentation of the skin showing up as white patches; vitiligo
  103. Pyoderma
    (py/o -derma)
    Any pus-producing disease of the skin
  104. Scleroderma
    (scler/o -derma)
    Abnormal thickening of the dermis, usually starting in the hands and feet
  105. Xeroderma
    (xer/o -derma)
    Dry skin of a chronic (continuous) nature
  106. Adenoma
    (Aden/o -oma)
    Tumor of a gland
  107. Carcinoma
    (carcin/o -oma)
    Malignant tumor of epithelial cells. Example basal cell carcinoma, a malignant tumor that is the most common and least harmful type of skin cancer usually caused by overexposure to the sun; squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant tumor that is more harmful and has a faster growing rate and tendency to metastasize (spread) to other body systems
  108. Hemangioma
    (hem/o angi/o -oma)
    A common, benign tumor of blood vessels. Also known as birthmarks or nevi (singular = nevus)
  109. Melan/o
    (melan/ -oma)
    • Black
    • Tumor arising from melanocytes; usually malignant
  110. Papilloma
    (papill/o -oma)
    Benign epithelial tumor
  111. Cryotherapy
    (cry/o -therapy)
    Dustruction of tissue by freezing with liquid nitrogen
  112. Laser therapy
    • An intense beam of light is used to remove unwanted tissue.
    • Note: in this example, therapy is used as a word rather than a suffix.
  113. Radiotherapy
    (radi/o -therapy)
    Use of x-rays and radiation to treat cancer
  114. Dermabrasion
    (derma- ab- ras/o -ion)
    Scraping away of the top layers of skin using sandpaper or wire brushes to remove tattoos or disfigured skin. The skin then regenerates with little scarring.
  115. What does the abbreviation bx mean?
  116. What do the following abbreviations mean?
    SC; subq; subcut
  117. What does the abbreviation UV mean?
  118. What do Sebaceous glands secrete?
  119. Sudoriferous glands
    Sweat glands
  120. What do ceruminous glands secrete?
  121. Albin/o
  122. Adip/o
  123. Bi/o
  124. Cyan/o
  125. Diaphor/e
    Profuse sweating
  126. Erythemat/o
  127. Hidr/o
  128. Lip/o
    Fat; lipids
  129. Melan/o
  130. Myc/o
  131. Nerc/o
  132. Onych/
  133. Pil/o
  134. Py/o
  135. Ras/o
  136. Rhytid/o
  137. Seb/o
  138. Steat/o
  139. -oma
    Tumor; mass
  140. Radi/o
    X rays