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What is the meaning of Dorsal & Ventral
- Dorsal - back cavity
- Ventral - front cavity
What are the subdivisions of the Dorsal cavity? (2)
- Cranial which contains the brain
- Spinal which contains the spinal cord
What are the subdivisions of the Ventral cavity? (3)
- Thoracic which contains the heart, lungs, aorta, trachea, and the esophagus
- Abdominal which contains the stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, large and small intestines, pancreas, and gallbladder
- Pelvic whih contains the bladder, urethra, and reproductive organs
Which two subdivions are frequently referred to as one?
The abdominal and pelvic cavity, called the abdominopelvic cavity
What is the anatomical position?
The body standing erect, arms at side, with head, palms, and feet facing forward.
Superior or cranial
- above; toward the head
- Example: the head is superior to the neck. Cranial nerves originate in the head.
Superior & Inferior
- Superior- Above; toward the head
- Inferior- Below; toward the lower end of the body or tail
- Front surface of the body; belly side of the body
- Example: the thoracic cavity is anterior to the spinal cavity
- Anterior- Front surface of the body; the belly side of the body.
- Posterior- Back surface of the body
- Medial- toward midline (the midline is an imaginary line drawn down the ceter othe body from the top of the heax to the feet)
- Example: the big toe is medial to the small toe
- Away from the midline (the midline is an imaginary line drawn down the ceter othe body from the top of the head to the feet)
- Example: the small toe is lateral to the big toe
- Back surface of the body
- Example: the spinal cavity is posterior to the thoracic cavity.
- Below; toward the lower end of the body or tail
- Example: the neck is inferior to the head.
- Caudal anesthesia is injected in the lower spine.
- Medial- Toward the midline
- Lateral- Away from the midline
- 1. Nearest the point of attachment to the trunk (NOTE: this definition is used primarily to describe directions on the arm and legs)
- Example 1: The elbow is proximal to the wrist, and the wrist is proximal to the fingers.
- 2. Toward the point of origin. (NOTE: this definition is used primarily to describe directions pertaining to the digestive tract, with the mouth as the point of origin.)
- Example 2: the stomach is proximal to the intestines.
- Farthest from the point of attachment to the trunk; farthest from the point of origin.
- Example: the knee is distal to the hip, and he ankel is distal from the knee. The intestines are distal to the stomach, and the stomach is distal to the throat.
- Proximal- nearest the point of attachment to the trunk OR toward the point of origin (when describing the digestive tract)
- Distal- farthest from the point of attachment to the trunk; farthest from the point of origin.
- definition: near the surface of the body
- Example: the skin is superficial to underlying organs.
- Definition: away from the surface o the body
- Example: muscles are deep to the skin.
- Superficial: near the surface of the body
- Deep: away from the surface of the body.
- Definition: lying on back, face up
- NOTE: in relation to the arms, supine means the palms are facing toward the front.
- Example: during an operation, the patient may be placed in the supine position.
- *remember supine has the word up in it.
- Definition: lying on the abdomen, face down
- NOTE: in relation to the arms, prone means the palms are facing toward the back
- Example: during an operation, the patient may be placed in the prone position.
- Supine: lying on back, face up
- Prone: lying on the abdomen, face down
- Definition: sole of the foot
- Example: plantar warts are on the sole of the foot
Upper portion of the foot
- Plantar: sole of the foot
- Dorsum: upperportion of the foot
- Definition: away from the center
- Example: peripheral nerves are the nerves away from the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral blood vessels are in the extremities.
What are the abdominopelvic regions? (9)
- Right Hypochondriac Region
- Left Hypochondriac Region
- Right Lumbar Region
- Umbilical Region
- Left Lumbar Region
- Right Iliac
- Left Iliac
What are the names and abbreviations of the abdominopelvic quadrants? (4)
Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ); Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ); Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ); Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
Definition: separates a structure into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
- Definition: separates a structure into right and left sides
- NOTE: if the sagittal section divides the body into equal portions, it is called a midsagittal section
- 1. Front
- 2. Pertaining to the front of the body or organ.
- 1. Tail
- 2. Pertaining to the tail; toward the tail
- 1. Back
- 2. Pertaining to the back
- 1. Below; downward
- 2. Pertaining to below or in a downward position; a structure below another structure
Inguinal (inguin/ -al)
- 1. Groin
- 2. Pertaining to the groin
- 1. Middle
- 2. Pertaining to the middle
- 1. Diaphragm
- 2. Pertaining to thw diaphragm
- 1. Back
- 2. Pertaining to the back of the body or an organ.
- 1. Near; close
- 2. Pertaining to that which is near a point of reference
- 1. Above; toward the head
- 2. Pertaining to a structure or organ situated either above another or toward the head.
Ventral (ventr/o -al)
- 1. Front
- 2. Pertaining to the front
Epigastric (epi- gastr/o -ic)
Definition: pertaining to upon the stomach (Refers to an abdominal region.)
Hypogastric (hypo- gastr/o -ic)
Definition: pertaining to below the stomach (Refers to an abdominal region.)
Iliac (ili/o -ac)
- 1. hip
- 2. pertaining to the hip
Spinal (spin/o -al)
- 1. Spine; Spinal Column; backbone
- 2. Pertaining to the spine
Viseral (viscer/o -al)
- 1. Internal organs
- 2. Pertaining to the internal organs
Pelvic (pelv/o -ic)
- 1. Pelvis
- 2. Pertaining to the pelvis
Thoracic (thorac/o -ic)
- 1. Chest; Thorax
- 2. Pertaining to the chest
Left lower quadrant
Left upper quadrant
Right lower quadrant
Right upper quadrant
What is a summary of the epidermis?
- Cells: epithelical; melanocytes; kerantinocytes
- Tissue: epithelial tissue
- Function: protection
What is a summary of the dermis?
- Cells: fibroblasts; macrophanges; mast cells; plasma cells
- Tissue: connective tissue
- Function: temperature regulation; sensation; secretion; nutrition; protection
What is the purpose of subcutaneous tissue?
It conects the dermis to inner structures and provides insulation.
- 1. White
- 2. Lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
(see also lip/o and steat/o)
- 1. Fat
- 2. Pertaining to fat
- 1. Life
- 2. A piece of living tissue is removed for mircoscopic examination.
(also see dermat/o and derm/o)
(sub- cutane/o -ous)
- 1. Skin
- 2. Pertaining to under the skin
- 1. Blue
- 2. Pertaining to a bluish discoloration of skin
Inflammation of the skin
(dermat/o - logy)
Study of the skin and its diseases
One who specializes in the study of the skin and its diseases
(hypo- derm/o -ic)
Pertaining to below the skin; subcutaneous
Surgical reconstruction of the skin; surgical replacement of injured or diseased skin
- 1. Profuse sweating
- 2. State of profuse sweating; hyperhidrosis
Structure made up of epithelial cells covering the internal and external surfaces of the body.
Pertaining to the epithelium
- 1. Red
- 2. Pertaining to redness of the skin.
- 1. Red
- 2. Red discoloration to the skin; erythroderma
- NOTE: Erythema is a noun
[a(n)- hidr/o -osis];
(hyper- hidr/o -osis)
- 1. Sweat
- 2. Lack of sweat
- 3. Excessive secretion of sweat; Diaphoresis
(hyper- kerat/o -osis)
Excessive growth of the outer layer of skin (hornlike layer)
Cell that produces keratin
- 1. Fat
- 2. Tumor or mass containing fat
- 3. Withdrawl of fat from the subcutaneous tissue
- 1. Black
- 2. Cell that produces melanin
(Dermat/o Myc/o -osis)
- 1. Fungus
- 2. Fungal infection of the skin
- 1. Death
- 2. Pertaining to death of tissue
(Epi- onych/o -ium)
Structure upon the nail; the cuticle
(Onych/o myc/o -osis)
Fungal infection of the nail
(Para- Onych/o -ia)
Inflammation of the tissue around the nail
(pil/o seb/o ace -ous)
- Pertaining to hair follicles and sebaceous glands
- Pus producing. For example, pyogenic bacteria produces pus.
(ab- ras/o -ion)
- Scraping away of the superficial layers of injured skin; for example injury from a burn
- Removal of wrinkles; facelift
- Increased discharge of sebum from the sebaceous glands
- Fatty tumor of the sebaceous glands
(peri- ungu/o -al)
- Pertaining to around the nail
Above the dermis
Redness of the skin; erythema
Lack of pigmentation of the skin showing up as white patches; vitiligo
Any pus-producing disease of the skin
Abnormal thickening of the dermis, usually starting in the hands and feet
Dry skin of a chronic (continuous) nature
Tumor of a gland
Malignant tumor of epithelial cells. Example basal cell carcinoma, a malignant tumor that is the most common and least harmful type of skin cancer usually caused by overexposure to the sun; squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant tumor that is more harmful and has a faster growing rate and tendency to metastasize (spread) to other body systems
(hem/o angi/o -oma)
A common, benign tumor of blood vessels. Also known as birthmarks or nevi (singular = nevus)
- Tumor arising from melanocytes; usually malignant
Benign epithelial tumor
Dustruction of tissue by freezing with liquid nitrogen
- An intense beam of light is used to remove unwanted tissue.
- Note: in this example, therapy is used as a word rather than a suffix.
Use of x-rays and radiation to treat cancer
(derma- ab- ras/o -ion)
Scraping away of the top layers of skin using sandpaper or wire brushes to remove tattoos or disfigured skin. The skin then regenerates with little scarring.
What does the abbreviation bx mean?
What do the following abbreviations mean?
SC; subq; subcut
What does the abbreviation UV mean?
What do Sebaceous glands secrete?
What do ceruminous glands secrete?