GI3- Diarrhea Pathophys

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  1. What enzymes break down polysaccharides into disaccharides? (3)
    maltose, lactose, sucrose
  2. What is the predominant enzyme in carbohydrate digestion?
    amylase
  3. Disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides, which include... (3)
    glucose, galactose, fructose
  4. What is the extra essential amino acid for cats?
    taurine
  5. Why isn't taurine essential for dogs?
    they can make it from methionine and cysteine
  6. Protein responsible for protein digestion in the stomach.
    pepsin
  7. Proteins responsible for intestinal protein digestion. (5)
    pancreatic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase), brush border peptidiases
  8. What are the dietary lipids? (3)
    triglycerides, cholesterol esters, phospholipids
  9. Fat digestion is more complicated than carb and protein digestion due to...
    it's decreased solubility.
  10. What are the steps of fat digestion? (5)
    • 1. Emulsification with bile salts
    • 2. Hydrolysis by lipase and colipase into monoglycerides and FFAs
    • 3. Micelle formation
    • 4. Triglycerides reform within enterocyte
    • 5. Chylomicrons assembled and enter lacteals and portal circulation
  11. What are micelles?
    transport monoglycerides, cholester, and FFAs to intestinal epithelial cells
  12. Lipoproteins carry... (2)
    fat-soluble vitamines and insoluble fats.
  13. What are the 2 types of intestinal epithelial cells, and what is the major function of each?
    • Crypt cells: secretory
    • Villous cells: absorptive
  14. What are the roles of mucus? (4)
    protects from acidic chyme, creates an alkaline pH to activate pancreatic enzymes, regulates intestinal bacterial, lubricates
  15. What intestinal cells secrete mucus? (2)
    Brunner's glands in duodenum, goblet cells in colon
  16. What is the primary function of the small intestine?
    absorption
  17. Contrast passive and facilitated diffusion.
    • Passive: driven by a concentration gradient and molecules go from high to low conc
    • Facilitated: driven by conc gradient but requires carrier proteins
  18. What is active transport?
    goes against a conc gradient and requires ATP
  19. Describe bile salt recycling.
    95% of bile salts are reabsorbed in the ileum, transported back to the liver, reabsorbed, and recycled (failure of this process leads to fat reabsorption)
  20. All water-soluble vitamins are absorbed by ___________, except __________, which is transported by ___________.
    passive transport; cobalamin (B12);active transport
  21. What food type is the biggest source of colbalamin?
    meats- Vit B12
  22. Where is cobalamin absorbed in the intestine? What is it bound to when it is absorbed?
    ileum; intrinsic factor from the pancreas
  23. Where in the intestine is folate absorbed?
    proximal SI (duodenum)
  24. How can cobalamin and folate be used as biomarkers?
    biomarkers of malabsorption; if folate is low, proximal SI malabsorption; if cobalamin is low, distal SI malabsorption
  25. Calcium and phosphorous absorption relies upon ___________.
    vit D
  26. Iron absorption requires a(n) ___________ environment; ___________ may enhance absorption.
    acidic; vit C
  27. Why do we give zinc to animals with copper hepatopathy?
    zinc and copper compete for divalent transporters; metallothyonine in enterocytes preferentially binds copper; give lots of zinc--> MT binds copper--> copper is trapped in the enterocytes, while zinc is absorbed into circulation--> copper is shed with enterocytes when they are normally shed
  28. What are the functions of the large intestine? (4)
    absorption, secretion, storage, fermentation
  29. __________ is fermented in the colon by microflora.
    Fiber
  30. What are the general mechanisms of diarrhea? (4)
    osmotic diarrhea, secretory diarrhea, increased mucosal permeability, altered motility
  31. Describe osmotic diarrhea.
    osmotically active substances cause increased fecal water output WITHOUT affecting electrolyte output
  32. What causes osmotic diarrhea? (2)
    ingestion of poorly absorbed substrate, malabsorption
  33. Describe secretory diarrhea.
    secretion> absorption, decreased ion absorption, increased ion secretion
  34. Causes of secretory diarrhea. (4)
    infectious enterotoxins, enteric hormones, neuropeptides, laxatives
  35. Describe the pathophys of "exudative" diarrhea.
    "exudative" diarrhea--> loss of fluids, electrolytes, proteins, RBCs into intestinal lumen
  36. What are causes of increased mucosal permeability? (4)
    inflammatory enteropathies, ulcerative enteropathies, neoplasia, infectious enteropathies
  37. What diseases cause increased intestinal motility? (2)
    IBD, hyperthyroidism
  38. Delayed transit time/ decreased intestinal motility may affect ____________.
    intestinal flora

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
318175
Filename:
GI3- Diarrhea Pathophys
Updated:
2016-03-30 13:57:04
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vetmed GI3
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vetmed GI3
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