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Achievement test
An instrument used to measure the proficiency level of individuals in given areas of knowledge or skill

Baseline
The graphic record of measurements taken prior to introdcuction of an intervention in a timeseries design.

Categorical Data/variables
Data (variables) that differ only in kind, not in amount or degree

Chaos Theory
A theory and methodology of science that emphasizes the rarity of general laws, the need for very large data bases, and the importance of studying exceptions to overall patterns.

Discriminant function analysis
A statistical procedure for predicting group membership (a categorical variable) from two or more quantitative variables.

Explanatory mixed method design
A study in which quantitative data are collected first and findings tested with subsequent quantitive data

Focus group interview
An interview conducted with a group in which respondents hear the views of each other

General Reference
Sources that researchers use to identify more specific references (e.g. indexes, abstracts)

Implementation threat
The possiblility that results are due to variations in the implementation of the treatment in an intervention study, thereby affecting internal validity.

Interjudge Reliability
The consistency of two ( or more) independent scorers, raters, or observers.

KuderRichardson Approaches
Procedures for determining an estimate of the internal consistency reliability of a test or other instrument from a single administration of the test without splitting the test into halves.

AB design
A sigle subject experimental design in which measurements are repeatedly made until stability is presumable established (baseline), after which treatment is introduced and an appropriate number of measurements

Likert scale
A selfreporting instrument in which an individual responds to a series of statements by indicating the extent of agreement. Each choice is given a numberical value, and the total score is presumed to indicate the attitude or belief in question.

Longitudinal Survey
A study in which information is collected at different points in time in order to study changes over time (usually of considerable length, such a several months or years).

MannWhitney U Test
A nonparametric inferential statistic used to determine whether two uncorrelated groups differ significantly.

Mean/Arithmetic Mean
The sum of the scores in a distribution divided by the number of scores in the distribution; the most commonly used measure of central tendency.

Moderator Variable
A variable that may or may not be controlled but has an effect on the research situation.

Multiple Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA)
An extension of analysis of covariance that incorporates two or more dependent variables in the same analysis.

Nonequivalent Control Group Design
An experimental design involving at least two groups, both of which may be pretested; one group receives the experimental treatment, and both groups are posttested. Individuals are not randomely assigned to treatments.

Parametric Technique
A test of significance appropriate when the data represent an interval or ratio scale of measurement and other specific assumptions have been met.

Path Analysis
A type of sophisticated analysis investigating casusal connections among correlated variables

Pilot Study
A small scale study administerede before conducting an actual study; its purpose to reveal defects in the research plan.m

Predictive Validity (Evidence of)
The degree to which scores on an instrument predict characteristics of individuals in a future situation.

Quantitative Variable
A variable that is conceptualized and analyzed as distinct categories, with no continuum implied

Practical Action Research
Action research intended to address a specific local problem c

