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  1. low frequency soundproof concrete - what is it made of and properties
    • lead spheres with silicone rubber coating
    • float, ductile and energy absorbing
  2. structural optimization - goal
    • reduce cost
    • increase usable floor space
    • meet all design requirements
  3. dead loads - calculation
    material density * component size
  4. wind loads - amount of impact depend on
    speed, direction, shape of structure
  5. earthquake loads - relevant parameters
    frequency and intensity
  6. natural frequency - depend on
    the structure itself
  7. driving frequency - depend on
    earthquake, wind etc
  8. frequency of vibration (dynamic loads) - depend on
    • mass
    • stiffness
    • damping
  9. amount of force acting on a surface - calculation
    pressure * area
  10. tensile testing machine - how it works
    pull the material and se if it elongates or breaks
  11. ductile test (for bricks)- - how it works
    • give the brick compression, then see how it breaks
    • if split: ductile
    • if shear off in 45 degree line: brittle
  12. moment - calculation
    M = F * L(length)
  13. Parthenon - features
    • columns consisted of round drums with wooden peg at center
    • short horizontal beams to keep deformation at minimum
    • no mortar used
  14. Timber - features
    • can take axial tension or compression
    • anisotropic: strength varies in different direction
    • used for 2-3 story houses
    • horizontal members in masonry structures
  15. Concrete - features
    • make strong connections
    • 28 days gain full strength; 3-5 days to be able to build another story on top
    • strength varies with the ratio of the ingredients, ie. water, cement, fine/coarse aggregates
    • 25MPa is strong enough for residential buildings
    • can be transported to upper levels with concrete pumps
    • formwork is used for casting
  16. Precast concrete - pros
    • better QC because factory produced
    • precise dimensions
    • steel moulds reusable
    • work completed in short time
    • reduce scaffolding and formwork
    • weather issues eliminated
  17. Precast concrete - cons
    • damage to units during transport
    • extra care to connections between precast units
    • special equipment for maneuvering units
    • proximate location of factory to the site to reduce cost
  18. Schmidt concrete test hammer - how it works and pros
    • perpendicular to test surface, push towards the surface, impact triggered when end position reaches
    • non-destructive to measure compressive strength
  19. Steel - features
    • good strength to weight ratio
    • used in skeletal frame
    • often take the tension among other structural members
    • high TENSILE and COMPRESSIVE strength
    • strength varies with carbon content
  20. Aluminium - features
    • ductile
    • one-third the density and stiffness of steel
    • high strength to weight ratio
    • good conductor of heat
  21. glass - features
    • high compressive strength
    • weak in tension or sudden impact
    • good conductor of heat
    • strength is highly variable
  22. how the foundation is made - depend on
    • the load
    • the soil
    • the budget
  23. Footing size (the area) - calculation
    Load on the column / safe bearing capacity of the soil
  24. steel bars - prefix
    • R - round
    • T or Y - deformed
  25. Raft footings - features
    • single footing
    • slab placed under
    • used when cannot use isolated footings
    • used when loads are heavy
    • used when bearing capacity is low
    • used when you wanna minimize differential settlement
  26. bored piles - process
    • vibrate in the temp casing
    • excavate shaft and drive to bedrock
    • insert steel cage
    • use tremie pipe to pour concrete
    • remove temp casing
  27. Short piling incidents
    • Yuen Chau Kok (temp casings did not reach founding level); initiated comprehensive settlement monitoring
    • Ting Chung Court
  28. Using the level - if A has higher reading than B, it signals that
    A is the lower point
  29. Stiffness - calculation
    Force/ lateral displacement
  30. Single core cantilever system - pros and cons
    • no columns - large space
    • highly inefficient
Card Set:
2016-04-05 02:37:27

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