Sociology 2nd test nagmita

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  1. Socialization
    Lifelong process beginning from birth and ends when one dies
  2. Instinct & ex.
    Inborn, complex behavior pattern transmitted genetically to the offspring and universal in expression throughout the species.

    Ex. Nest building by birds
  3. Reflex action & ex.
    a built in physiological action controlled through the autonomic nervous system.

    Ex. blinking, sucking, knee jerk
  4. Feral Children & ex.
    Children raised by lower animals

    Ex. Anna, Isabella, Genie etc.
  5. Isolated children & ex.
    Children receiving minimal contact with humans.

    Ex. Anna, Isabella, Genie etc.
  6. Cooley and looking glass self
    • 1. our imagination of how we appear to others
    • 2. our imagination of how others judge our appearance.
    • 3. we develop our self concept
  7. self concept
    • 1. Imitation- unconscious, play stage, taking on roles of whom ever, animal or human, they come across
    • 2. game stage- knows the roles it should play for certain activities, like games. "generalized order"
  8. Agents of Socialization
    Family, school, peer groups, and the mass media.
  9. Power and authority
    Status
  10. Ascribed status & ex
    • born into the status or automatically given. 
    • Ex. age, sex
  11. Achieved status & ex
    • status one strives for or puts effort for.
    • ex. college student, senior, spouse, jobs
  12. Master status
    one's key status or the most important position of a person.
  13. Society
    A group interacting individuals sharing the same territory and participating in a common culture.
  14. Role & ex
    The behavior one enacts in a particular status, which is partially dependent on the status of the other individual with whom one is interacting.
  15. Role set
    A cluster of roles attaches to a single status.
  16. Role conflict & ex
    Exists when enactment of one role prevents a person from meeting his/her obligations in other roles. One negates the other.

    Ex. Pacifist/military personel
  17. Role strain & ex
    Develops when a person incurs difficulty meeting all his or her role expectations in a particular status, at a particular time.

    Ex. Working mother, college student/worker
  18. Difference between status & role
    We play a role, a role is complex. Status is occupied.
  19. Impression management p119
    is the effort to control or influence other people's perceptions.
  20. Dramaturgical approach
    Human interaction is dependent upon time, place, and audience.
  21. Body Language, eye contact etc
    tells a lot about a person
  22. Aggregate
    • People who happen to be in the same place at the same time. 
    • ex. passengers on a airplane; students waiting to cross the street.
  23. Social group
    Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who regularly and consciously interact.
  24. Merton's definition of a social group
    • a. recognize each other and one's self as members of the group.
    • b. others recognize them as members of the group
    • c. group members expect certain behavior from members they do not expect from nonmembers
  25. dyad
    2 people group, smallest and most fragile
  26. triad
    3 people group, volatile and has potential for coalition formation and for conflict.
  27. small group
    25 or less like a class size
  28. large group
    more than 25
  29. implications of size
    as size of group increases, the relations increase dramatically.
  30. dramatic increase in dyad relations occur when ...
    increasing 1 person
  31. All __ are small groups, but not all small groups are ___
    Primary groups
  32. Multifaceted relationships. See each other in varying roles and situations. Know a lot about them.
    Primary groups
  33. Long lasting or enduring relationships.
    Primary groups
  34. non-task oriented relationships.
    Primary groups
  35. small group, frequent interaction, in close proximity
    Primary group
  36. Limited face-to-face interaction. Do not interact much, maybe once or a few times.
    Secondary groups
  37. In group
    "we" social group with which people feel comfortable and identify with
  38. out group
    • "They" social group where individuals do not belong and feel hostile and competitive towards
    • ex. faternity - independents
  39. Reference group
    comparison groups, influences person's behavior and attitudes regardless of membership.
  40. Bureaucracy characteristics
    • a. division of labor
    • b. hierarchy of authority - chain of command
    • c. rules and regulations
    • d. impersonality or impersonal vs personal interaction; to help guarantee equal treatment
    • e. employment based on technical qualifications promotions based on written personnel policies.
  41. Peter Principle
    In a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his/her level of incompetence- promotion if done good, no promotion is average
  42. Michael's Iron Law of Oligarchy or oligarchy
    Large organizations tend to be dominated by a few leaders
  43. Voluntary associations
    • Common interest organizations whose members volunteer or pay to participate
    • ex. boy scout, faternity
  44. Coercive associations
    • people are forced to join and leave the group
    • ex. prison
  45. Utilitarian organizations
    • formed for practical reasons
    • ex. unions, universities
  46. Macro-sociology and micro
    • emphasis on social system and population on a large scale.
    • individual social agency, face-to-face
  47. Resocializaition
    the process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, an behaviors fro those in one's background and pervious experiences
  48. Voluntary socialization
    when one decides to change their lives have new norms be apart of a new society.
  49. involuntary socialization
    happens when individual is forced into a total institution where they are forced to  read just to a new lifestyle, with new norms and values
  50. total institutions
    a place where a group of people is cut off from the wider community and their needs are under bureaucratic control
  51. anticipatory socialization
    non group members learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they aspire to join, so as to ease their entry into the group and help them interact competently once they have been accepted by it.
  52. G.H. Mead Assumptions
    • Qualitative difference between man and lower animals
    • Assumes man possesses, through the evolutionary process, the biological makeup which enables man to develop language, mentality, self-consciousness and a rational human society
    • Man is rational
    • Theory has a behavioristic basis (social behavior)
  53. Mind
    Is the presence in behavior of significant symbols.

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Sociology 2nd test nagmita
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2016-04-10 23:33:32
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Second Test
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