EMT

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Author:
readyreg29
ID:
31853
Filename:
EMT
Updated:
2010-09-30 22:07:18
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Human Body
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Description:
Anatomy
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  1. All descriptions of the body start with the assumption that the body is in the _________ position.
    anatomical position
  2. The term medial refers to a position on the body
    closer to the midline
  3. When the body is divided into front and back halves, the front half of the body is called
    Anterior
  4. Some respiratory distress patients feel better if the head of the stretcher is raised so the body is at a 45- to 60-degree angle. This is known as
    Fowler's position
  5. The five divisions of the spine, in order from top to bottom, are
    • Cervical
    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
    • Sacral
    • Coccyx
  6. The ischium, pubis, and acetabulum are all parts of the
    Pelvis
  7. The type of muscle that is under conscious control of the brain via the nervous system is the
    Voluntary muscle
  8. The components of the blood that carry oxygen to the tissues are the
    Erythrocytes
  9. The nerves that carry messages from the brain to the body are the
    Motor nerves
  10. The production of insulin and epinephrine takes place within the
    endocrine system
  11. Anterior
    The front of the body or body part
  12. Posterior
    the back of the body or body part
  13. Superior
    Toward the head
  14. Inferior
    Away from the head
  15. Proximal
    Closer to the torso
  16. Distal
    Farther away from the torso
  17. Fowler's position
    A sitting position
  18. Trendelenburg position
    • A position in which the patient's feet and legs are higher than the head
    • (shock position)
  19. Tissue that connects bone to bone
    Ligament
  20. Tissue that connects muscle to bone
    Tendon
  21. The lower jaw bone
    mandible
  22. The two fused bones forming the upper jaw
    Maxille
  23. Nose bones
    Nasal bones
  24. The bony structure around the eyes; the eye sockets
    Orbits
  25. Forms the structure of the cheeks
    Zygomatic arches
  26. The spinal column
    Vertebrae
  27. How many bones make uop the spinal column
    33
  28. The chest
    Thorax
  29. The breastbone
    Sternum
  30. The superiorportion of the sternum
    Manubruim
  31. The inferior portion of the sternum
    Xiphoid process
  32. The superior and widest portion of the sternum
    Ilium
  33. The lower, posterior portions of the pelvis
    ischium
  34. The medial anterior portion of the pelvis
    Pubis
  35. The pelvic socket into which the ball at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint
    • Acetabulum
    • (AS-uh-TAB-yul-lum)
  36. Large bone of the thigh
    Femur
  37. The kneecap
    Patella
  38. The medial and larger bone of the lower leg
    tibia
  39. The lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
    Fibula
  40. Protrusion on the side of the ankle
    Malleolus
  41. The ankle bone
    Tarsals
  42. The foot bones
    Metatarasals
  43. The heel bone
    Calcaneus
  44. The toe & finger bones
    Phalanges
  45. The collarbone
    Clavicle
  46. The shoulder blade
    Scapula
  47. The highest portion of the shoulder
    Acromion process
  48. The joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet
    Acromioclavicular joint
  49. The bone of the upper arm
    Humerus
  50. The lateral bone of the forearm
    Radius
  51. The medial bone of the forearm
    Ulna
  52. The wrist bones
    Carpals
  53. The hand bones
    Metacarpals
  54. Muscle that can be consciously controlled
    Voluntary muscle
  55. Muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled
    Involuntary muscle
  56. Specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart
    Cardiac muscle
  57. A leaf-shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea
    Epiglottis
  58. The voice box
    Larynx
  59. The "windpipe"; the structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs
    Trachea
  60. The organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place
    Lungs
  61. The two large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs.
    Bronchi
  62. The microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange with the bloodstream takes place.
    Alveoli
  63. The muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
    Diaphragm
  64. The two upper chambers of the heart
    Atria
  65. The two lower chambers of the heart
    Ventricles
  66. Any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
    Artery
  67. Blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart
    Coronary arteries
  68. The largest artery in the body
    Aorta
  69. Components of the blood that carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells
    Red blood cells
  70. Components of blood that produces substances that help the body fight infections
    White blood cells
  71. The pressure created in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation
    Systolic blood pressure
  72. The pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling
    Diastolic blood pressure
  73. The central nervous system consists of?
    The brain & spinal cord
  74. Produces bile; which is excreted into the small intestine to assist in the breakdown of fats. Detoxifies harmful substances, stores sugar, & assists in producing blood products
    Liver
  75. Storage system for bile from the liver
    Gallbladder
  76. Produces hormone insulin and assists in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fat
    Pancreas
  77. Acts as a blood filtering system filtering out older blood cells
    Spleen
  78. 3 major layers of skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous layer
  79. The smallest kind of artery
    • Arteriole
    • (ar-TE-re-ol)
  80. The smallest kind of vein
    Venule
  81. Signs of shock
    • Altered mental status
    • Pale,cool,clammy, skin
    • Nausea & vomiting
    • Vital sign changes
  82. Signs of internal bleeding
    • Injuries to the surface of body
    • Bruising, swelling, pain over vital organs
    • Painful swollen, deformed extremities
  83. Three major types of shock
    • Hypovolemic (blood / fluid loss)
    • Cardiogenic (inadequate pumping of heart)
    • Neurogenic (nerve paralysis)
  84. The three methods of controlling external bleeding:
    • Direct pressure
    • Elevation
    • Pressure points
  85. Adequate breathing:
    Adult
    Child
    Infant
    • Adult: 12-20
    • Child: 15-30
    • Infant: 25-50
  86. Signs of breathing difficulty;
    • breathing rate, rhythm
    • increase / decrease pulse rate
    • pale, cyanotic, or flushed skin
    • noisey breathing
    • flared nostrils / pursed lips
  87. OPQRST
    • Onset
    • Provocation
    • Quality
    • Radiation
    • Severity
    • Time
  88. The Pediatric Assessment triangle
    • Appearance - mental status, body position, muscle tone
    • Breathing - visible movement, effort, audible sounds
    • Circulation - skin color
  89. Common causes of shock in infants & children:
    • Diarrhea and/or vomiting (dehydration)
    • Infection
    • Trauma
    • Blood loss
    • Allergic reactions
    • Poisoning
  90. The number one cause of death in infants and children?
    Trauma
  91. Steps in the initial assessment
    • general impression
    • mental status
    • airway
    • breathing
    • circulation
    • priority
  92. AVPU
    • alert
    • verbal response
    • painful responce
    • unresponsive
  93. High priority conditions:
    • poor general impression
    • unresponsive
    • difficulty breathing
    • shock
    • complicated childbirth
    • uncontrolled bleeding
    • severe painblood pressure below 100
  94. Vital signs
    • pulse
    • respirations
    • skin color, temperature,condition
    • pupils
    • blood pressure
  95. SAMPLE history:
    • S-Signs and symptoms
    • A-Allergies
    • M-Medications
    • P-Pertinent past history
    • L-Last oral intake'
    • E-Events leading to injury or illness
  96. DCAP - BTLS
    • Deformities
    • Contusions
    • Abrasions
    • Punctures / Penetrations
    • Burns
    • Tenderness
    • Lacerations
    • Swelling
  97. A clot formed of blood and plaque attached to the inner wall of an artery
    Thrombus
  98. The dilation, or balloning, of a weakend section of the wall of an artery
    Aneurysm
  99. Accumulation of fluid in the lungs
    Pulmonary edema
  100. The failure of the heart to pump efficientley, leading to excessive blood or fluid in the lungs or the body
    Congestive heart failure

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