SGU Physiology Quiz 1
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SGU Physiology Quiz 1
SGU Physiology Quiz
SGU Physiology Quiz 1
Which membrane proteins connect neighboring cells and account for the immunological properties of cell?
The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer are the heads polar or nonpolar? The tails?
Polar heads, nonpolar tails
What can pass through a cell membrane?
small molecules, water
What compound is necessary for active transport to take place?
Which type of diffusion is saturable?
Fick's law of diffusion depends on what factors?
concentration diff., area, diffusion coeff., membrane thickness
Facilitated diffusion usually applies to polar or nonpolar substance?
What is a carrier?
An integral membrane protein, allows binding of substrate which it then passes through membrane into cell
Why is facilitated diffusion saturable?
depends on # carrier proteins present, once depleted the substrate must wait for more
K+/Na+ which has two gates? which has one?
In channels with 1 gate a _____ stimulus opens the gate, opening the gate is depolarization/repolarization?
Resting position for Na+ channel is ______ gate open and ____ gate closed?
In Na+ channels the _____ gate is electrically controlled, ______ gate is time controlled?
The charge inside a cell is_____ the charge outside is ____?
Inside -, Outside+
Electrically gated channels are found in what two cell types?
The driving force for movement of particles through channels is the _____?
Is the transport through membrane channels saturable?
The Na+/K+ pump is an example of ______transport?
The Na+/K+ pump moves ______Na+ out and _____K+ in?
3Na+ out, 2K+in
In _____ transport the carriers and substrate can move in the same or opposite directions?
In ______ transport the carriers and substrate are moved in opposite directions it is called _____?
When the carrier and substrate move in the same direction it is called______?
Which part of secondary active transport requires no energy?
What is the source of energy of the Na/K pumps?
_______ splits ATP into ADP+phosphate for energy?
______ ion transport has no effect on the membrane potential while ____ changes the membrane potential?
Which transport mechanism describes the volume flow of water carrying dissolved substances?
______ is when cells take in large particles by surrounding them with projections of its membrane called_____?
_____ is where tiny droplets of extracellular fluid are surrounded by pseudopods and incorporated in vesicles?
____ is where incorporated vesicles fuse with the cell membranes and release their contents to ECF?
Which transport mechanism has the ability to change membrane potential?
The resting membrane potential is?
What is peak membrane potential at depolarization?
The ______ refractory period is the time during an action potential when no amount of stimulus can initiate another AP?
The _____ refractory period is time during which a strong stimulus can initiate another action potential?
Does diffusion of Cl- out of cell increase or decrease membrane potential?
Fast/slow Na+ channels cause what?
Fast/slow K+ channels cause what?
Which ions/molecules are found in higher concentrations in extracellular fluid(ECF)?
Na+, Cl-, Ca++, bicarbonate
Which ions/molecules are found in higher concentrations in the intracellular fluid(ICF)?
K+, inorganic phosphate, inorganic sulfates, organic acids/proteins
How can the membrane potential generated by one univalent ion be calculated?
Explain difference in Nerst and GHK equations?
Nernst=calculation for 1ion, GHK=calculation for >1ion
What would be effect on membrane potential if ATP synthesis by mitochondria stopped?
ATP couldn't open channels for Na, K potential would slowly become 0
Ca++ ions carry 2+ charges and are higher in concentration in ECF. Why does this contribute so little to membrane potential?
Very low compared to Na+, pretty much no effect
Na+/K+ causes depolarization while Na+/K+ causes repolarization?
Na+ depolarize, K+ repolarize
What is the normal duration on an action potential?
_____ is when depolarization reaches a certain value, generating an action potential?
_____ is the electrical discharge across a cell membrane?
______ occurs because K+ channels close slowly leading to K+ slowly diffusing out of cell?
____ is the principle stating that any depolarization of the cell either has no effect or results in an action potential?
all or none
_______ propagate action potentials afferently while ______ propagate action potentials efferently?
_______neurons carry info toward the brain and spinal cord?
sensory or afferent
_____ connects two neurons and transmits info
____ neurons carry info out of brain or spinal cord to effect cells?
motor or efferent
______ surrounds the axon and speeds up conduction?
____ are gaps in myelin sheaths?
nodes of ranier
______ conduction occurs quickly on axons w/schwann cells?
_____ conduction occurs on non-myelinated axons?
_____ and _____ determine rate of conduction?
insulation and size(diameter) or type and diameter
_____ fibers are the fastest?
A, then B, then C slowest
_____ fibers are sympathetic, postganglionic?
_____ fibers are sympathetic preganglionic?
______ synapses are found in cardiac/smooth muscle?
_____ synapses are found in skeletal muscle?
______ synapses require a neurotransmitter and Ca++?
In a ______ synapse action potentials open the Na++ channels?
In a _____ synapse action potential open Cl-, K+ channels?
An EPSP/IPSP is caused by a flow of positively charged ions into postsyaptic cell.
_____summation is more than one synapse depolarizing simultaneously?
______ summation is a series of action potentials from one synapse depolarizing repeatedly?
The _____ consists of brain and spinal cord?
The _____ maintains homeostasis in the body?
The PNS uses only _____ as it's neurotransmitter?
Both _____ and ______ mimic the affect of ACh and act on its receptors?
Nicotinic and muscarinic
_______ blocks muscarinic receptor?
____ receptors are on postganglionic neurons?
_____ prevents the depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane of the motor end plate leading to muscle paralysis
_____ synapses use ACh as a neurotransmitter and ________ synapses us E or NE
The sympathetic division uses___ as a pre-ganglionic transmitter and usually ____ as a post?
_____ receptors are classified into Alpha and Beta
____binds better to alpha receptors and ____ binds better to beta receptors?
_____ agents mimic the effects of parasympathetic stimulation, 2 examples?
_____ agents reduce or block the effects of parasympathetic stimulation? example?
_____ causes constriction of blood vessels and bronchi, decrease lipolysic and inhibits insulin secretion?
What is the term for a drug having a diminished effect after repeated application?
____ are used to treat peripheral vasospasm?
List selective beta and nonselective beta blockers?
B1,B2, or B3 non= B1, B2, and B3
____ are used to treat prophylaxis of angina pectoris and arrthmias
More than 2 neurons are involved in a ____ reflex.
____ reflexes are the simplest, consisting of only 2 neurons
Proprioceptive reflexes are also called?
Stretch receptors in the muscle are called _____ and _____ in the tendons?
neuromuscular, golgi's corpuscles
A____is the neutral pathway that mediates reflex action?
The ____ reflex causes contraction of extensor muscles in the limb opposite a painful stimulus
crossed extensor reflex
If a polysynaptic reflex recruits additional areas it is called?
the ___ is the smallest functional subunit for skeletal muscle contraction?
____ separate the sarcomeres?
The ____ is the region where actin filaments are on both sides of z-plate?
The ____ is the region in which actin and myosin filaments overlap?
the ___ consists of only myosin filaments
one filament sliding shortens a sarcomere by ____% and _____ is maximum it can be shortened
Binding of ____ to troponin terminates the inhibitiory effect of tropomuosin, leading to myosin/actin binding?
____ splits ATP into ADP and phospate, ____ is required for this?
Dissociation of the ____ tips the head from 90-50 degrees? 50-45?
Rigor mortis occurs when ____ is no longer produced?
Binding of _____ lifts the head off the actin?
The ____ is the intracellular reservoir for Ca ++
L-system, aka sarcoplasmic reticulum
Cardiac AP's are much _____ than nerve and muscle AP's?
____ is responsible for the duration of cardiac AP's
Ca++ deficiency causes the muscles to remain in state of _____?
______ muscle depends on extracellular Ca++ _____ muscle doesn't?
What causes Ca++ release from L-system?
depolarization and Ca++ influx from ECF
What transport mechanism is responsible for transporting Ca++ back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum after contraction ?
The synapse connecting motor neuron and muscle fiber is called ______?
motor end plate
A _____ consists of one neuron and all skeletal muscle cells innervated by it?
The motor unit is the functional unit of ____muscle?
If ____ muscle fibers are innervated by one motor unit you get a finer control.
____ twitch motor units predominate in white muscle?
The arrangement of muscle cells in the heart is called?
____ connect the ends of neighboring muscle fibers?
intercalated discs (gap junctions)
_____ muscles do not depend on the CNS for stim?
Max sustained contraction of skeletal muscle is called?
How is tetanus attained in cardiac muscle?
____ muscle contains no sarcomeres.
_____ contraction is where the tension on the muscle changes but the muscle length stays the same?
_____ contraction is where both length and tension change?
____ muscle has the slowest rate of AP's
____ tension is determined by the number of actin/myosin cross-bridges, when ____ tension is determined by elastic muscle components?
____ is the prolonged shortening of the muscle caused by either a sustained local depolarization or by pharmacologically induced Ca++ release?
The force of a muscle contraction is determined by which 2 factors?
#motor units, frequency of AP's