SGU Physiology Quiz 1

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SGU Physiology Quiz 1
2010-09-09 11:37:00
SGU Physiology Quiz

SGU Physiology Quiz 1
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  1. Which membrane proteins connect neighboring cells and account for the immunological properties of cell?
  2. The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer are the heads polar or nonpolar? The tails?
    Polar heads, nonpolar tails
  3. What can pass through a cell membrane?
    small molecules, water
  4. What compound is necessary for active transport to take place?
  5. Which type of diffusion is saturable?
  6. Fick's law of diffusion depends on what factors?
    concentration diff., area, diffusion coeff., membrane thickness
  7. Facilitated diffusion usually applies to polar or nonpolar substance?
  8. What is a carrier?
    An integral membrane protein, allows binding of substrate which it then passes through membrane into cell
  9. Why is facilitated diffusion saturable?
    depends on # carrier proteins present, once depleted the substrate must wait for more
  10. K+/Na+ which has two gates? which has one?
    Na+=2, K+=1
  11. In channels with 1 gate a _____ stimulus opens the gate, opening the gate is depolarization/repolarization?
    Electrical, depolarization
  12. Resting position for Na+ channel is ______ gate open and ____ gate closed?
    Inactivation, activation
  13. In Na+ channels the _____ gate is electrically controlled, ______ gate is time controlled?
    Activation, Inactivation
  14. The charge inside a cell is_____ the charge outside is ____?
    Inside -, Outside+
  15. Electrically gated channels are found in what two cell types?
    Nerve, Muscle
  16. The driving force for movement of particles through channels is the _____?
    electrical-chemical gradient
  17. Is the transport through membrane channels saturable?
  18. The Na+/K+ pump is an example of ______transport?
    Primary Active
  19. The Na+/K+ pump moves ______Na+ out and _____K+ in?
    3Na+ out, 2K+in
  20. In _____ transport the carriers and substrate can move in the same or opposite directions?
    secondary active
  21. In ______ transport the carriers and substrate are moved in opposite directions it is called _____?
  22. When the carrier and substrate move in the same direction it is called______?
  23. Which part of secondary active transport requires no energy?
  24. What is the source of energy of the Na/K pumps?
  25. _______ splits ATP into ADP+phosphate for energy?
  26. ______ ion transport has no effect on the membrane potential while ____ changes the membrane potential?
    Electroneutral, electrogenic
  27. Which transport mechanism describes the volume flow of water carrying dissolved substances?
    Bulk flow
  28. ______ is when cells take in large particles by surrounding them with projections of its membrane called_____?
    Phagocytosis, pseudopods
  29. _____ is where tiny droplets of extracellular fluid are surrounded by pseudopods and incorporated in vesicles?
  30. ____ is where incorporated vesicles fuse with the cell membranes and release their contents to ECF?
  31. Which transport mechanism has the ability to change membrane potential?
    electrogenic symport/antiport
  32. The resting membrane potential is?
  33. What is peak membrane potential at depolarization?
  34. The ______ refractory period is the time during an action potential when no amount of stimulus can initiate another AP?
  35. The _____ refractory period is time during which a strong stimulus can initiate another action potential?
  36. Does diffusion of Cl- out of cell increase or decrease membrane potential?
  37. Fast/slow Na+ channels cause what?
    fast, depolarization
  38. Fast/slow K+ channels cause what?
    slow, repolarization
  39. Which ions/molecules are found in higher concentrations in extracellular fluid(ECF)?
    Na+, Cl-, Ca++, bicarbonate
  40. Which ions/molecules are found in higher concentrations in the intracellular fluid(ICF)?
    K+, inorganic phosphate, inorganic sulfates, organic acids/proteins
  41. How can the membrane potential generated by one univalent ion be calculated?
    Nernst equation
  42. Explain difference in Nerst and GHK equations?
    Nernst=calculation for 1ion, GHK=calculation for >1ion
  43. What would be effect on membrane potential if ATP synthesis by mitochondria stopped?
    ATP couldn't open channels for Na, K potential would slowly become 0
  44. Ca++ ions carry 2+ charges and are higher in concentration in ECF. Why does this contribute so little to membrane potential?
    Very low compared to Na+, pretty much no effect
  45. Na+/K+ causes depolarization while Na+/K+ causes repolarization?
    Na+ depolarize, K+ repolarize
  46. What is the normal duration on an action potential?
    ~3-5 milliseconds
  47. _____ is when depolarization reaches a certain value, generating an action potential?
  48. _____ is the electrical discharge across a cell membrane?
    action potential
  49. ______ occurs because K+ channels close slowly leading to K+ slowly diffusing out of cell?
  50. ____ is the principle stating that any depolarization of the cell either has no effect or results in an action potential?
    all or none
  51. _______ propagate action potentials afferently while ______ propagate action potentials efferently?
    dendrites, axons
  52. _______neurons carry info toward the brain and spinal cord?
    sensory or afferent
  53. _____ connects two neurons and transmits info
  54. ____ neurons carry info out of brain or spinal cord to effect cells?
    motor or efferent
  55. ______ surrounds the axon and speeds up conduction?
    schwann cells
  56. ____ are gaps in myelin sheaths?
    nodes of ranier
  57. ______ conduction occurs quickly on axons w/schwann cells?
  58. _____ conduction occurs on non-myelinated axons?
    continuous conduction
  59. _____ and _____ determine rate of conduction?
    insulation and size(diameter) or type and diameter
  60. _____ fibers are the fastest?
    A, then B, then C slowest
  61. _____ fibers are sympathetic, postganglionic?
  62. _____ fibers are sympathetic preganglionic?
  63. ______ synapses are found in cardiac/smooth muscle?
  64. _____ synapses are found in skeletal muscle?
  65. ______ synapses require a neurotransmitter and Ca++?
  66. In a ______ synapse action potentials open the Na++ channels?
  67. In a _____ synapse action potential open Cl-, K+ channels?
  68. An EPSP/IPSP is caused by a flow of positively charged ions into postsyaptic cell.
  69. _____summation is more than one synapse depolarizing simultaneously?
  70. ______ summation is a series of action potentials from one synapse depolarizing repeatedly?
  71. The _____ consists of brain and spinal cord?
  72. The _____ maintains homeostasis in the body?
  73. The PNS uses only _____ as it's neurotransmitter?
  74. Both _____ and ______ mimic the affect of ACh and act on its receptors?
    Nicotinic and muscarinic
  75. _______ blocks muscarinic receptor?
  76. Atropine causes?
  77. ____ receptors are on postganglionic neurons?
  78. _____ prevents the depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane of the motor end plate leading to muscle paralysis
  79. _____ synapses use ACh as a neurotransmitter and ________ synapses us E or NE
    cholinergic, adrenergic
  80. The sympathetic division uses___ as a pre-ganglionic transmitter and usually ____ as a post?
    ACh, NE
  81. _____ receptors are classified into Alpha and Beta
  82. ____binds better to alpha receptors and ____ binds better to beta receptors?
    NE, E
  83. _____ agents mimic the effects of parasympathetic stimulation, 2 examples?
    Parasympathomimetic, muscarine/nicotine
  84. _____ agents reduce or block the effects of parasympathetic stimulation? example?
    Parasympatholytic, atropine
  85. _____ causes constriction of blood vessels and bronchi, decrease lipolysic and inhibits insulin secretion?
  86. What is the term for a drug having a diminished effect after repeated application?
  87. ____ are used to treat peripheral vasospasm?
    alpha blockers
  88. List selective beta and nonselective beta blockers?
    B1,B2, or B3 non= B1, B2, and B3
  89. ____ are used to treat prophylaxis of angina pectoris and arrthmias
    B1 blockers
  90. More than 2 neurons are involved in a ____ reflex.
  91. ____ reflexes are the simplest, consisting of only 2 neurons
  92. Proprioceptive reflexes are also called?
  93. Stretch receptors in the muscle are called _____ and _____ in the tendons?
    neuromuscular, golgi's corpuscles
  94. A____is the neutral pathway that mediates reflex action?
    reflex arc
  95. The ____ reflex causes contraction of extensor muscles in the limb opposite a painful stimulus
    crossed extensor reflex
  96. If a polysynaptic reflex recruits additional areas it is called?
    integrated response
  97. the ___ is the smallest functional subunit for skeletal muscle contraction?
  98. ____ separate the sarcomeres?
    Z plates
  99. The ____ is the region where actin filaments are on both sides of z-plate?
  100. The ____ is the region in which actin and myosin filaments overlap?
  101. the ___ consists of only myosin filaments
  102. one filament sliding shortens a sarcomere by ____% and _____ is maximum it can be shortened
  103. Binding of ____ to troponin terminates the inhibitiory effect of tropomuosin, leading to myosin/actin binding?
  104. ____ splits ATP into ADP and phospate, ____ is required for this?
    ATPase, Mg++
  105. Dissociation of the ____ tips the head from 90-50 degrees? 50-45?
    Phosphate, ADP
  106. Rigor mortis occurs when ____ is no longer produced?
  107. Binding of _____ lifts the head off the actin?
  108. The ____ is the intracellular reservoir for Ca ++
    L-system, aka sarcoplasmic reticulum
  109. Cardiac AP's are much _____ than nerve and muscle AP's?
  110. ____ is responsible for the duration of cardiac AP's
  111. Ca++ deficiency causes the muscles to remain in state of _____?
  112. ______ muscle depends on extracellular Ca++ _____ muscle doesn't?
    Cardiac, skeletal
  113. What causes Ca++ release from L-system?
    depolarization and Ca++ influx from ECF
  114. What transport mechanism is responsible for transporting Ca++ back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum after contraction ?
    active transport
  115. The synapse connecting motor neuron and muscle fiber is called ______?
    motor end plate
  116. A _____ consists of one neuron and all skeletal muscle cells innervated by it?
    motor unit
  117. The motor unit is the functional unit of ____muscle?
  118. If ____ muscle fibers are innervated by one motor unit you get a finer control.
  119. ____ twitch motor units predominate in white muscle?
  120. The arrangement of muscle cells in the heart is called?
    functional syncytium
  121. ____ connect the ends of neighboring muscle fibers?
    intercalated discs (gap junctions)
  122. _____ muscles do not depend on the CNS for stim?
  123. Max sustained contraction of skeletal muscle is called?
  124. How is tetanus attained in cardiac muscle?
    not possible
  125. ____ muscle contains no sarcomeres.
  126. _____ contraction is where the tension on the muscle changes but the muscle length stays the same?
  127. _____ contraction is where both length and tension change?
  128. ____ muscle has the slowest rate of AP's
  129. ____ tension is determined by the number of actin/myosin cross-bridges, when ____ tension is determined by elastic muscle components?
    active ,passive
  130. ____ is the prolonged shortening of the muscle caused by either a sustained local depolarization or by pharmacologically induced Ca++ release?
  131. The force of a muscle contraction is determined by which 2 factors?
    #motor units, frequency of AP's