Birkland Chp 8 - Policy Design Policy Tools and Decisions

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  1. Policy Design
    The process by which policies are designed both through technical analysis and the political process, to achieve a particular goal.
  2. Implementation and Policy Design
    • The design of a policy will profoundly influence the way a policy is implemented.
    • Designers often base their policy designs on experience with similar policies that have already been implemented.
    • Design continues throughout implementation.
  3. Outcomes
    • The substantive results of the implementation of a policy.
    • Outcomes can be intended or unintended, positive or negative.
    • Differs from outputs, which are the laws regulations etc that government expends to address a problem.
    • Ex: Output is # of hours teachers teach, Outcome would hopefully be increased student success.
  4. Goal of Policy
    • Element of Policy Design
    • A desired outcome of a policy; these goals can be explicitly stated or implicit in the policy and other factors found in its legislative history.
    • Goal could be to eliminate a problem, lessen a problem, keep a problem from getting worse.
  5. Causal Model (or Theory) of Policy
    • Element of Policy Design
    • Needs to be defined. A theory about what causes a problem and how particular responses would alleviate that problem.
    • D we know x will result in y.
    • How do we know? Can we find out?
    • Act of God or Human?
    • Purposive or negligent?
  6. Tools of Policy
    • Element of Policy Design
    • A method through which government seeks a policy objective.
    • What instruments will be used to put the policy into effect?
    • Will they be more or less coercive?
    • Will they be incentives, persuasion, information?
  7. Central Characteristics/Dimensions of Policy Tools
    • Nature of the activity in which government is engaged
    • Structure of the delivery system (direct or indirect service)
    • Degree of centralization (more direct, more central)
    • Degree of automaticity (degree of detailed administration)
  8. Targets of Policy
    • Element of Policy Design
    • Whose behavior is supposed to change?
    • Are there direct and/or indirect targets?
    • Are design choices predicated on our social construction of the target population?
  9. Implementation of Policy
    • Element of Policy Design
    • How will the program be implemented?
    • Who will lay out the implementation system?
    • Top-down or bottom-up design selected?
  10. Categories of goals
    • equity
    • efficiency
    • security
    • liberty
    • they goals clash
  11. Efficiency
    Gaining the most output for a given level of input or getting "more bang for the buck." Efficiency is often thought of as getting the same output for less of a particular input or getting more of something for a constant input.
  12. Polis
    The political community, and is contrasted with the market as a way of describing human organization and interaction.
  13. Security v Liberty
    The more security one desires from the government, the more liberty one must be willing to surrender.
  14. Three factors in the policy tool choice
    • Political Feasibility - whether popular/acceptable
    • Resource Availability/Administrative Feasibility - degree of ease in implementation
    • Behavioral Assumptions about target population - effectiveness
  15. Positive decision-making models
    Neutral explanations of how a system works
  16. Normative decision-making models
    Explanations of how decisions should be made
  17. Rational Comprehensive Decision-Making
    A model of decision-making in which it is assumed that decision makers have nearly all information about a problem, its causes, and its solutions at their disposal, whereupon a large number of alternatives can be weighed and the best one selected. Contrast with incrementalism and bounded rationality.
  18. Cost Benefit analysis
    Sometimes called cost-benefit-risk analysis, a technique of policy analysis that seeks to understand the costs of a course of action and its benefits. When risk is introduced the risk of something bad happening is also taken into account.
  19. Bounded Rationality
    A term, that describes how decision makers seek to act as rationally as possible within certain bounds or limits; these limits include limited time, limited information, and our limited human ability to recognize every feature and pattern of every problem.
  20. Incrementalism
    A model of decision-making in which policy change is accomplished through small, incremental steps that allow decision makers to adjust policies as they learn from their successes and failures.

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Author:
enknjs
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318719
Filename:
Birkland Chp 8 - Policy Design Policy Tools and Decisions
Updated:
2016-04-10 21:10:24
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public policy
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Public Policy
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