Psychology CH.1

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Psychology CH.1
2010-09-01 16:16:38

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  1. Psychology-
    Study of Behavior and Mental Processes
  2. Behavior-
    What organisms do, their actions and reactions
  3. Affect-
    Ones feelings, moods, emotions
  4. Cognitions-
    Mental events Ex. Beliefs, thoughts, ideas, memories
  5. Operationl Definition-
    The procedures used to measure or create concepts
  6. Science-
    An organized body of knowledge gained through the scientific methods
  7. Scientific Methods-
    A step by step process used to gain knowledge
  8. Hypothesis-
    An educated guess that can be tested
  9. Pseudoscience-
    False science
  10. Science Practitioners-
    Counseling, clinical, sports psychologist
  11. Goals of Psychologest-
    • 1. Observe
    • 2. Explain
    • 3. Predict
    • 4. Change
  12. Mechanism-
    A robot with tubes, pipes, valves and gears
  13. Dualism-
    Body and Mind
  14. Empiricists-
    We are born with a blank slate and only experience can fill that
  15. Behaviorism-
    Focus on events that can be observed and measured
  16. Humanistic Psychology-
    The person should be the mane concern in an experiment
  17. Biological Approach-
    The chemicals in body, what they do. Studying the physical body.
  18. Evolutionary Approach-
    Explain behaviors and mental processes in terms of how they help members of the species adapt to their environments
  19. Cognitive Approach-
    How an organism processes information
  20. Developmental Approach-
    Look at the organism as it grows and develops
  21. Cross Cultural Approach-
    What motivation and/or reinforcing to an individual
  22. Positive Psychology-
    On mental health
  23. Naturalistic Observation-
    Observing subjects in their natural environment
  24. Survey-
    Asking a large number of persons the same question or set of questions
  25. Case History-
    One person - or a small group of persons - is studied in depth, often over a long period of time
  26. Sample-
    A portion of a larger group
  27. Correlational Research-
    Observed and measured, but not manipulated
  28. Experimental Research-
    Investigators manipulate a variable
  29. Positive Correlation Coefficient-
    A value between 0.00 and +1.00 that tells us that as values of one variable increase, the volues of the other variable increase as well
  30. Correlation Coefficent-
    A number with a value between +1.00 and -1.00 that tells us about the nature and the extent of a relationship between the variables that have been measured
  31. Negative Correlation Coefficient-
    Value between 0.00 and -1.00 that tells us that as values of one variable increase, the values of the other variable decrease
  32. Experiment-
    0 series of operations used to investigate whether changes in one variable cause measurable changes in another variable, while all other variables are controlled or eliminated
  33. Independent Variable-
    Variable in an experiment that the experimenter manipulates
  34. Dependent Variable-
    A measure of the behavior of the participants in an experiment
  35. Experimental Group-
    Participants in an experiment exposed to some value of the independent variable
  36. Control Group-
    Participants in an experiment who recive a zero level of the independent variable
  37. Placebo-
    Something given to a participant that has no identifiable effect on the dependent variable
  38. Extroneous Variables-
    Factors that can influence the dependant variable of an experiment and need to be controlled or eliminated
  39. Random Assignment-
    Each participant in a research program has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups in an experiment
  40. Baseline Designs-
    Each participant serves in poth the experimental and in the control group conditions
  41. Generalization-
    The ability to apply results beyond the restrictive conditions of an experimental setting
  42. Field Experiments-
    Those done not in a laborotory, but in the "real world"
  43. Meta Analysis-
    Combining the results of many studies to see more clearly the relationship.