CRIM 355

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  1. Forensic Toxicology
    • Detection of drugs and poisons
    • Interpretation in terms of physiological and behavioral effects
    • Analytical chemistry & Pharmacology
    • Also some pathology, physiology and biochemistry

    • Require minimum of B.Sc. (Hon) in biochemistry, chemistry or pharmacy
    • ~16-18 months training period at lab, mentored by a toxicologist
  2. Goals of the forensic toxicologist
    • Assist in establishing the true cause of death
    • Provide a basis for intoxicated behaviour
    • Provide a clue to clinical history when the subject is unable or unwilling to do so
    • Assist in establishing the truth of statements such as “I was high and so I don’t remember”
  3. Criminal Cases
    • Murder, attempted murder, manslaughter
    • Assault, physical, sexual, chemical weapon
    • Impaired driving
    • Poisoning, noxious substances
    • Food and product tampering
    • Parole and probation violations
    • What is it? Other types of cases
    • Coroner or ME  lab – postmortem toxicology – non-criminal
    • Health Canada: Bureau of dangerous drugs
    • Controlled drugs and substances act violations
    • Private Labs
    • Employee screening
  4. Caveat – “Dose makes the poison”
    • ANYTHING can be a poison
    • Depends on DOSE
    • E.g. oxygen, water
    • Raves
  5. Analytical
    • 1. Select specimen
    • 2. Extract compounds
    • 3. Separate compounds
    • 4. Identify drugs/poison
    • 5. Quantitate drugs/poison
  6. Specimen - Blood
    • Good for screening, confirmation and quantitation
    • Primary index for drug/poison effects
    • “Dirty”
    • Invasive, or may not be available
    • Postmortem redistribution of drugs
    • Alcohol production by body after death
    • Need to collect blood from several sites to compare
  7. Specimen - urine
    • Primary fluid for screening and confirmation.
    • Not so good for quantitation
    • Excretory products
    • Indicates prior exposure
    • Easily available, non-invasive
    • Useful for postmortem alcohol determinations
    • Clean specimen

    Risk of tampering
  8. Specimen - Hair
    • Good for screening over many months
    • Controversy over whether IN or ON hair
    • Canada – criminal testing only
    • US criminal and employment testing
  9. Other specimens
    Ø LiverØ KidneysØ Gastric contentsØ BileØ BrainØ LungsØ Injection siteØ CSFØ Bone marrowØ MaggotsØ Vitreous humorØ Synovial fluidØ StainsØ SalivaØ MeconiumØ POST-MORTEM!!
  10. Non-biological Exhibits
    • Paraphernalia – syringes, spoons, pipes
    • Residues – powders, stains, food
    • Medicines – prescriptions, pills
    • Seized at  scene?
  11. Analytical considerations
    • No single analytical scheme to detect everything
    • Use a repertoire of standard methods
    • Modify according to nature of case as well as type and amount of specimen
    • Exclude or indicate the presence of a drug, poison or class of compounds
    • Presumptive then confirmatory tests
  12. Presumptive screening
    • Rapid
    • Sensitive
    • NOT specific
    • Very useful to exclude a drug or class of drugs and to indicate possible drugs
  13. Confirmatory Methods
    • Sensitive
    • Specific
    • Combination of chromatography and spectrometry e.g.
    • Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
    • Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry
    • Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry
  14. Clandestine Labs
    • Toxicologist may attend scene
    • Identify dangers
    • Booby traps
    • Identify specimens
  15. Case History
    • 1871 – expedition to find North Pole
    • Captain fell sick after drinking coffee
    • Dr. attended him – got sicker!
    • “How do you spell murder?”
    • Died “apoplexy
    • 1968 – postmortem – arsenic!

Card Set Information

Author:
Csouch
ID:
318902
Filename:
CRIM 355
Updated:
2016-04-14 01:34:09
Tags:
FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY
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Description:
TOX
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