Criminal Justice unit

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  1. retribution
    punishment inflicted on a person who has harmed others and so deserves to be penalized
  2. general deterrence
    punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the general public and to discourage the commission of offenses
  3. specific deterrence
    punishment inflicted on criminals to discourage them from committing future crimes
  4. incapacitation
    Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society, usually by detaining the offender in prison
  5. selective incapacitation
    making the best use of expensive and limited prison space by targeting for incarceration people who incapacity will do the most to reduce crime in society
  6. restoration
    punishment designed to repair the damage done to the victim and community by an offender's criminal act
  7. indeterminate sentence
    A period, set by a judge, that specifies a minimum time to be served in prison. Sometime after the minimum, the offender may be eligible for parole
  8. determinate sentences
    a sentence that fixes the term of imprisonment at a specific period
  9. presumptive sentence
    A sentence for which the legislature or a commission sets a minimum and maximum range of months or years
  10. mandatory sentence
    a sentence determined by statutes and requiring that a certain penalty be imposed and carried out for convicted offenders who meet certain criteria
  11. good time
    A reduction of an inmate's prison sentence, at the discretion of the prison administrator, for good behavior or participation in vocational, educational, or treatment programs
  12. earned time
    reduction in a prisoner's sentence as a reward for participation in educational or other rehabilitation programs, and for work assignments, such as disaster relief and conservation projects
  13. intermediate sanctions
    a variety of punishments that are more restrictive than traditional probation but less severe and less costly than incarceration
  14. probation
    a sentence that other offender is allowoed to serve under supervision in the community
  15. shock probation
    a sentence in which the offender is released after a short incarceration and resentenced to probation
  16. presentence report
    a report, prepared by a probation officer, that presents a convicted offender's background and is used by the judge in selecting an appropriate sentence
  17. sentencing guidelines
    a mechanism to indicate to judges the expected sanction for certain offenses, in order to reduce disparities in sentencing
  18. corrections
    the variety of programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of people who have been accused or convicted of criminal offenses
  19. penitentiary
    an institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society and from one another so they can reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and reform
  20. separate confinement
    a penitentiary system, developed in Pennsylvania, in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.
  21. congregate system
    A penitentiary system, developed in Auburn, New York in which each inmate was held in isolation during the night but worked and ate with other prisoners during the day under a rule of silence
  22. contract labor system
    A system under which inmates' labor was sold on a contractual basis to private employers who provided the machinery and raw materials with which inmates made salable products in the institution
  23. lease system
    A system under which inmates were leased to contractors who provided prisoners with food and clothing in exchange for their labor
  24. reformatory
    an institution for young offenders that emphasizes training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole
  25. mark system
    A point system in which prisoners can reduce their term of imprisonment and gain release by earning "marks" or points through labor, good behavior, and educational achievement
  26. rehabilitation model
    A model of corrections that emphasizes the need to restore a convicted offender to a constructive place in society through some form of vocational or educational training ir therapy
  27. medical model
    a model of corrections based on the month assumptions that criminal behavior is caused by biological or psychological conditions that require treatment
  28. community correction
    a model of corrections based on the goal of reintegrating the offender into the community
Card Set:
Criminal Justice unit
2016-04-14 04:22:24

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