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- Lipid A of LPS, G(-) only
- causes toxin shock syndrome by IL-1, released by macrophage during phagocytosis, and bacterial lysis, fever, etc.
IL-1 induce _____
prostaglandin release after IL-1 enters bloodstream and stims hypothalamus.
The way cell responds to the endotoxin is through _______.
- toll-like receptors (TLRs)
- receptors on immune cells that respond to different parts of bacteria
- TLR-4 responds to bacterial endotoxins
Fever persists after the bacteria die because
the endotoxin is still active, binds TLR, releases IL-1, induces fever
- secreted or released by the bacteria
- aka extracellular toxins
- most are A-B toxins: made up of an A component (has the action, causes the toxicity) and a B component (binds to the receptor)
Who discovered anti-toxin antibody therapy
- Emil Behring
- horse serum, diphtheria toxin, passive immunity
Mechanism for neurotoxins blocking neurotransmitter release
- for normal release, translocating of transmitter-filled vacuole requires protein tag v-snare on the vacuole and t-snare, which is the receptor to v-snare and locates on the terminal membrane.
- the toxins cleave off v- and/or t-snares, preventing the release.