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Bacteriostatic agents are usually _____ that bind to _____. Eg.
- protein inhibitors
- the ribosome
- • Tetracycline - binds reversibly to the ribosome.
Bacteriocidal agents bind tightly to the cellular target. Eg.
• Streptomycin-binds irreversibly to the ribosome.
- An agent that kills and lysis the cell.
- • Usually cell wall inhibitors and detergents.
- • Ampicillin - inhibits cell wall synthesis and causes cells lysis.
Measurement of antibiotic sensitivity
MIC: Minimal Inhibitory Concentration
The lowest concentration of agent that completely inhibits growth.
MBC - Minimal Bactericidal Concentration
The lowest concentration of an agent that will kill the bacteria.
- Discovery of Penicillin (1929)
- father of antibiotics
Glycoside hydrolases, enzymes that damage bacterial cell walls by cleaving 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) in a peptidoglycan.
Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
- Beta-lactam antibiotics
- Account for half of the antibiotics used
Antimicrobial Drug Resistance
- Drug uptake (permeability) and efflux pump (transport)
- Target modification (structure/pathway/overproducing)
- Antibiotic / drug modification
Bacteriocidal, bacteristatic, bacteriolytic
- kill (does not affect the total count)
- inhibit the growth
- kill and lyse