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What is the main difference between spoken and written language?
Temporal qualities, speech is continuous and fast fading
What are phonemes?
Discrete speech categories that are the equivalent of letters in written words
What is the Ganong effect (Ganong, 1980)?
perception of phoneme is affected by sound following is by lexical knowledge
(eg. hear 'kiss' not 'giss' even when k/g is ambiguous)
What is the McGurk effect (McGurk, 1976)?
Making use of visual information about the speakers lip position during perception of a phoneme
What are the 3 stages in the cohort model (Marsen-Wilson, 1987)?
- 1. access stage (set up a cohort of possible words)
- 2. selection stage (activation of a word is reduced as they mismatch the sound)
- 3. integration stage (semantic/syntactic properties)
How do we know when one word ends and another starts? (3 possible ways)
- 1. acoustic cues (like vowels are lengthened)
- 2. word recognition (we recognise a word so know the next sounds must be another word)
- 3. metrical segmentation (most words in English start with a stressed first syllable)