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- Discontinuous, high pitched, short crackling, popping sounds. Heard during inspiration, not cleared by coughing.
- Examples: Late inspiratory crackles- restrictive diseases like pneumonia, heart failure, interstitial fibrosis.
- Early Inspiratry crackles- obstructive diseases like chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema. Posturally induced crackles after acute MI.
Loud, low pitched, bubbling/gurgling sounds that start in early inspiration. May be present in expiration. May decrease with suctioning/ coughing. Examples: pulmonary edema, pneumonia pulmonary fibrosis, terminally ill depressed cough reflex.
Like fine crackles but don't last and are not pathologic. Disappear after first few breaths. Examples: aging adults, bedridden, just aroused from sleep.
Pleural friction rub
Superficial, coarse, and low pitched. Like rubbing two pieces of leather. Sound just like crackles but closer to ear. In inspiratory and expiratory. Examples: pleuritis, accompanies by pain with breathing.
High pitch wheeze
Musical squeaking sounds that are polyphonic. Mostly expiratory, but can be both. Examples: diffused airway obstruction from asthma or chronic emphysema.
Low pitch wheeze
Monophonic single note, musical snoring/moaning sounds. Heard throughout but louder on expiration. May clear by coughing. Examples: bronchitis, single airway obstruction from airway tumor.
High pitched monophonic, inspiratory crowning sound. Louder in the neck. Examples: croup, acute epiglottitis in children, foreign inhalation, may be life threatening.