Language 6 - Communication - PBS5

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  1. Importance of multi-modal communication and how this affects language. 4 additional mechanisms that people use to complement language are...
    • gestures
    • pauses and disfluencies
    • conversation convergence
    • speech-vision integration
  2. 4 types of gestures
    • beats - repretitive, simple, no obvious meaning
    • pointing
    • sybolic (ok and thumbs up)
    • lexical gestures: complex, non-repetittive, and related to meaning of accomanying speech
  3. What was the old view for gestures?
    • Gestures have communicative and informative function
    • clear from symbolic gestures and pointing
  4. Evidecne against old view of gestures as infomrative?
    • However, gestures often tend to be quite vague too and meaningless without words
    • Congenitally blind speakers: gesture equally while talking to other blind people 
    • speakers seem to use it even when they bear no info (Iverson and Goldin-Meadow)
  5. What's the more recent view about gestures?
    • They facilitate word production 
    • by facilitating activation of semantic and lexical features
    • Butterworth and Hader
    • Krauss
  6. Evidence for this new view of gestures?
    • 1. Blind-to-blind still use gestures (Iverson & Goldin-Meadow)
    • 2. Rauscher et al: 
    • increase disfluencies when gestures prevented
    •     task - descirbe cartoon. Fake skin conductance electrodes placed on hands so that they won't move them. 
    •     effect esp strong when speech is space-related
    • 3. Gesture-speech asychrony: gestures often precede speech 
    •    500ms-1s before language
    •    Morrel-Samuels & Krauss (1992)
    • 4. Primates and pre-linguistic babies use gestures too (gestures a way of linking facilitating activation of semantic features?)
  7. What is the view about evolution of language from gestures?
    • Pre-linguistic babies and primates use gestures
    • Arbib et al/ Tomasello: language originally conveyed by gestures (getural protolanguage hypothesis)
  8. How can pauses and disfluencies help language commincation?
    • 1. 60-70% of pauses fall at juncture of sentences (helping with syntactical structure)
    • 2. Disfluencies often begin utterance (planning processes - perhaps similar pre-language function to gestures)
    • 3. Disfluenceis also often mark production of incorrect word
    • 4. Brennan and Schober
    •    move mouse to purple square but interrupted in different ways
    • between-word: 'move to the yellow purple square'
    • mid-word: yel purple
    • mid-word with filler: yel uh purple
    • Fastest response for mid-word with filler
    • Disfluency (uh) has some informative purpose
    • compensate for disruptions and signal repair
  9. The 3rd mechanism - conversation convergence. What is it?
    • People in conversation when referring to objects, tend to converge on similar referring expressions. (aka lexical entrainment)
    • Metzing and Brennan: confederate speaker say instructions during task requiring moving objects in grid
    • Time to look at target slower when old speaker says new word/phrase (eg. silver pipe instead of shiny cylinder)
    • But when new speaker says it, no difference in reaction time
    • Expect interlocutors to stick to same words/phrases
    • encoding who-says what 
    • distributions of processing load - as each reuses info computed by the other
  10. What processes might be underlying conversation convergence?
    • Garrod and Pickering (2004)
    • automatic mechanisms of priming and imitation

    emphasise importance of communicative intent in humans
  11. Multimodal integration (with vision).
    • McGurk effect
    • mouth produce ga, syllable is ba, people report hearing da
    • Seeing face supplements noisy signal - raises SNR (signal to noise ratio) by 20dB (Sumby & Pollack)
    • See face of speaker enhace comprehension of speech with complicated content or produced with heavy foreign language (Reisberg et al)
  12. Evolutionary context of similar multimodal integration.
    • Prelinguistic infants link mouth movements to auditory signals they hear (Kuhl & Meltzoff)
    • Macaques have highly developed audio-visual integration, which serves to support social integration (Ghazanfar et al) 
    •   Measure single-neuron local field potential in STS (superior temporal sulcus - associative area) and auditory cortex simulteneously
    • Function interaction between these stronger when presented with  dynamic faces and voices (as opposed to face or voice alone)
    • Multisensory neurons in macaque auditory cortex
  13. Successful communication in the neural domain.
    • Research on neural correlates of communication still in its infancy 
    • Hassan: communicative interactions supported by coupling of neuronal oscillations (firings) of sender and perceiver (brain-to-brain coupling)
    •    Difference between stimulus-to-brain coupling and brain-to-brain coupling
    •    Seeing or hearing will trigger cortical activations in perceiver, leading to coordination and complex joint behaviours.
    • Stephens: fMRI of speaker telling story and listener
    • Spatially and temporally coupled - (ie the speaker's brain activations modelled that of listener)
    • Coupling vanished when Russian recording presented to English speaker, showing it is communicative
    •     ALSO: frontal regions exhibit predictive anticipatory responses - extent of which correlated with level of comprehension -- suggest prediction is important part of successful communication
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Language 6 - Communication - PBS5
2016-04-23 00:06:15
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