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What is the aim of comprehension?
Give input, work out meaning/interpretation (Johnson-Laird, 83)
What is the aim of production?
Fulfil communicative intention by realising details of the form: syntactic, phonological etc
How many words do speakers typically produce per second?
Where do speakers retrieve their words?
From an active lexicon ~30,000 words
What is the "mind in the mouth" assumption?
When a speaker wants to express a message
How is production like comprehension?
- Structural elements overlap (e.g. phoneme, morpheme, word)
- Meaning is central to both
What are the 2 approaches postulated for naturalistic, spontaneous errors in production?
- 1. Freud: reflect unconscious desires... conflict, train of thought...
- 2. Fromkin: Reflect underlying cognitive processes involved in speaking, and the units of representation involved
What are errors?
When produced utterance seems correct from speaker's point of view, but observer may consider/hear it to be wrong
What are the types of errors?
- Child development errors - show the way lang is acquired.
- Uninformed/incorrect usage (aint, more/fewer) --> reveals dialectical differences, lang change, and sociolinguistics.
- Produced utterance deviates from speaker's intended target (e.g. filled pauses (um, er..), lexical and sublexical errors, syntactic errors.
What are the 2 stages of lexical retrieval?
- 1. Meaning-based lexical properties (lemma) (amodal)
- 2. Word form representation (lexeme)
- Modality specific:
- - Phonological lexicon = speaking
- - Orthographic lexicon = writing
What 2 levels do slip of the tongue occur?
- 1) Semantic substitutions
- 2) Phonological substitutions
Where do semantic substitution errors appear?
- Meaning-based level.
- Reflect semantic similarity (yr vs hr = both units of time)
- E.G. "400 years of service" when meant to say "hours"
Where do phonological substitution errors appear?
- Form-based level.
- Reflect phonological similarity b/w words (envelope and elephant sound similar)
What are 2 potential problems with spontaneous errors?
- 1. Expectations influence perception
- 2. Relevant context may be unknown
How do expectations influence perception?
If we tend to perceive ambiguous stimuli as words, we may be misclassifying or simply failing to identify errors of certain types (e.g. SLIF or SLIP?)
How may relevant context be unknown?
From naturally occurring speech, we may not be able to identify the “intended” target when an error occurs.
What are tip of the tongue states?
Being unable to produce a word, but feeling like the word is nearly there.
How can we estimate 'true' TOT states?
- By providing the word
- "Was this the work you were thinking of?"
Where do TOT occur?
- At junction between meaning-based and form-based.
- Some retrieval of form and some retrieval of syntactic info found experimentally.
- Separation of meaning and form - but partial form information leaks through.
When are TOT more prevalent?
- Older adults
- Proper names
What is the frequency explanation for TOT?
Hearing/seeing/producing a word more often may strengthen the links between meaning & form
- Meaning-related words interfere with picture naming
- Pictures do not affect word reading
- Difference: lexical selection
Is meaning or form retrieved first?
- Meaning retrieved 1st
- Form retrieved 2nd
What are the different ways to achieve speed and accuracy?
- Discrete feedforward
- Cascading + feedback
- Cascading feedforward
What process occurs in Discrete feedforward?
WORD (e.g.'DOG') -> Meaning based (& syntactic) -> Form-based -> Articulation
What process occurs in Cascading + feedback
WORD (e.g.'DOG') <--> Meaning based (& syntactic) <--> Form-based <--> Articulation
What process occurs in Cascading feedforward?
WORD (e.g.'DOG') --> Meaning based (& syntactic) --> Form-based --> Articulation
What kind of evidence can address information flow?
- Mixed errors
- Many lexical substitution errors exhibit both form & meaning similarity more often than chance would predict
- cat ► rat lemon ► melon
What are the computational implementations of mixed errors for cascading info flow?
Under discrete, feedforward account, such errors would only occur based on independent, coincidental overlap at both semantic and phonological levels (i.e., at chance level).
Lexical bias in phonological errors
- Sound errors tend to create words more often than chance would predict:
- fitch pork [intended “pitch fork”] vs. coastal pode [intended “postal code”]