Cranial Nerves: Functions and Locations

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  1. I: Olfactory
    • Sensory
    • Function: olfaction
    • Location: epithelia of nasal cavity (through ethmomid bone), olfactory bulb
    • Test: identify smells
    • Dysfunction: anosmia
  2. II: Optic
    • Sensory
    • Function: vision
    • Location: retina, converge at optic chiasm, thalamus
    • Test: ophthalmoscope, fundoscopic exam
    • Dysfunction: blindness
  3. III: Oculomotor
    • Motor, parasympathetic
    • Function: voluntary eye movements, raise eyelid, intrinsic eye muscles
    • Location: pons
    • Test: tracking objects
    • Dysfunction: inability to move eyes a certain way
  4. IV: Trochlear
    • Motor
    • Function: innervates superior oblique extrinsic eye muscle
    • Location: pons
    • Test: check for symmetrical eye movements
    • Dysfunction: vertical diplopia (double vision)
  5. V: Trigeminal
    • Sensory, Motor
    • Function: sensation of face and cornea, mastication
    • Location: pons
    • Test: cornea reflex, palpate masseter muscle
    • Dysfunction: loss of sensation, impaired chewing
  6. VI: Abducens
    • Motor
    • Function: voluntary eye movements
    • Location: between pond and medulla
    • Test: check for symmetric eye movements
    • Dysfunction: can't rotate eye laterally
  7. VII: Facial
    • Mixed, parasympathetic
    • Function: facial expression, lacrimal & salivary function, taste of ant 2/3 of tongue.
    • Location: between pons and medulla
    • Test: taste sensation, tear production
    • Dysfunction: can't taste, dry eye, excess tears, sagging of facial muscles (Bells Palsy)
  8. VIII: Vestibulochoclear
    • Sensory
    • Function: hearing and equilibrium
    • Location: between pons and medulla
    • Test: test for swaying when eyes are closed
    • Dysfunction: vertigo, nausea, loss of balance
  9. IX: Glossopharyngeal
    • Mixed, parasympathetic
    • Function: sensory and somatomotor¬†of pharynx, parasympathetic to salivary glands, taste to posterior 1/3 of tongue.
    • Location: medulla
    • Test: gag reflex
    • Dysfunction: loss of gag reflex
  10. X: Vagus
    • Mixed, parasympathetic
    • Function: sensory and motor to pharynx and larynx, parasympathetic to viscera
    • Location: medulla
    • Test: say "AHH"
    • Dysfunction: difficulty swallowing, hoarseness of voice
  11. XI: Accessory
    • Motor
    • Function: innervation of trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle
    • Location: comes from spinal chord and enters into cranial cavity before exiting again
    • Test: shrug shoulders
    • Dysfunction: impaired head, neck, and shoulder movement.
  12. VII: Hypoglossal
    • Motor
    • Function: movement of tongue
    • Location: medulla
    • Test: stick out tongue and check for symmetry
    • Dysfunction: deviation of tongue toward injured side
Card Set:
Cranial Nerves: Functions and Locations
2016-04-25 18:40:35
cranial nerves
Cranial nerves functions and locations on the brain stem
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