Card Set Information
Major cations within the cell?
Major anion within cell?
Major cations outside the cell?
Major anion outside the cell?
Normal range of Na+
Symptoms of Hyponatremia?
Confusion, N/V, Seizures**, Coma, Decreased BP**, Tachycardia**, Increased Intracranial Pressure**
Causes of Hyponatremia?
Diuretics, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Excessive water intake, excessive D5W
Treatments for Hyponatremia?
Hypertonic IV sol'ns (LR/0.9% NaCL), Fluid restriction, Na+ rich foods
What are some of the
sx of Hypernatremia
Polyuria, Anorexia, Thirst, Dry Mucous Membranes, Hypotension, Tachycardia
What are some of the late sx of Hypernatremia?
Confusion, seizures, coma, tremors, muscle twitching, rigid paralysis
What are some of the causes of Hypernatremia?
Excess fluid loss or sodium intake, Hypertonic tube feedings, Diarrhea, Hyperventilation, Diabetes insipidus, Lg amounts of salt water,
Treatment of Hypernatremia?
Hypotonic IV (0.3% or 0.45% NaCl; 5%D5W); Diuretics, Decrease sodium intake, Increase oral fluids
Normal range of Potassium K+?
Symptoms of Hypokalemia?
Shallow respirations, Irritability, Confusion, Weakness, Arrhythmias, Lethargy, Thready Pulse, Decreased intestinal motility
Causes of Hypokalemia?
Abnormal loss through GI tract or Kidneys (diuretic use), Mg+ deficiency, Metabolic alkalosis
Treatment of Hypokalemia?
Oral K+ supp, Increase dietary intake, IV (max.20mEq/L/hr!!!)
NEVER EVER IV PUSH!!!!!!
Causes of Hyperkalemia?
Massive intake of K+, Impaired renal excretion, Shift from ICF to ECF, Digitalis use; Secondary to cell destruction
Sx of Hyperkalemia?
Weak/Paralyzed skeletal muscles, Hypotension, V-fib (EKG changes-Tall T Waves/dysrhythmias), Abd cramping/diarrhea
Treatment of Hyperkalemia?
Diuretics, Dialysis, Kayexalate-(eliminate K+), Insulin and glucose (force K+ into ICF), IV Bicarb
Normal range of Calcium?
4.5-5.5 mEq/L or 9-11mg/dl
Causes of Hypocalcemia?
Decreased production of PTH, Acute pancreatitis***; Multiple blood transfusions, Alkalosis, Decreased intake, Steroid use
Sx of Hypocalcemia?
Muscle tetany (+Trousseau's or Chvostek's sign), Dysphagia, Spontaneous fx's, Tingling around mouth or in extremities
Treatment for Hypocalcemia?
Oral or IV Ca+ supp; Treat pain and anxiety to prevent hyperventilation-induced resp. alkalosis
Causes of Hypercalcemia?
Hyperparathyroidism, Malignancy, Vit D overdose, Prolonged immobilization, Thiazide diuretic use (reduces Ca+ secretion)
Sx of Hypercalcemia?
Decreased memory, confusion, disorientation; fatigue, weakness, absent/depressed reflexes; constipation; dysrhythmias
Normal range of Phosphorous/Phosphate?
1.7-2.6 mEq/L or 2.5-4.5mg/dl
Causes of Hypophosphatemia?
Malnourishment/malabsorption, alcohol withdrawal, use of phosphate-binding antacids, inadequate replacement during parenteral nutrition
Sx of Hypophosphatemia?
CNS depression, confusion, muscle weakness, dysrhythmias, cardiomyopathy
Treatment of Hypophosphatemia?
Oral supp, ingestion of high phophorous foods, IV Na+ or K+ phophate (10mEq/hr)
Causes of Hyperphosphatemia?
Acute or chronic renal failure, chemotherapy, excessive ingestion of phosphate or Vit D
Sx of Hyperphosphatemia?
Early signs: Tachycardia, palpitations
Late signs: Tetany, hyperflexia
Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia?
Restrict foods and fluid with Phophate, adequate hydration and correction of hypocalcemic conditions, monitor urine output, avoid carbonated beverages
Which two electrolytes have an inverse relationship due competition for binding with similar pharmalogical structures?
Calcium & Phosphorous
What is the normal range for Magnesium?
1.5-2.5 mEq/L or 1.8-3.0 mg/dl
Causes of Hypomagnesemia?
Prolonged fasting or starvation, Chronic alcoholism, GI fluid loss, Prolonged parenteral nutrition without supp, Diuretics
Sx of Hypomagnesemia?
Confusion, Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Tremors, Seizures, Dysrhythmias
Treatment for Hypomagnesemia?
Oral supps, Increase dietary intake, Parenteral IV or IM Mg+ when severe
Causes of Hypermagnesemia?
Increased intake or ingestion with renal insufficiency or failure
Sx of Hypermagnesemia?
Lethargy/drowsiness, N/V, Loss of deep tendon reflexes, Resp. and Cardiac arrest
Treatment of Hypermagnesemia?
Increase fluid intake, (for emergent) IV Ca+ Chloride or Ca+Gluconate, Dialysis